General Psychology Notes [Version 2] Part 1 (4.0ed this cou..
General Psychology Notes [Version 2] Part 1 (4.0ed this course!)

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101

Day 1: 09/06/13 5 Sub Domains: -Neuroscience -Developmental -Cognitive -Social -Clinical Slide 4: Morality: bad. -Left: prison in Iraq. -Institutional evil: person behaving cruelly towards another bc it’s an accepted norm among guards. People in roles feel pressure to do this behavior. -Right: Ted Bundy- rapist and murderer, dismember bodies and have sex with corpses. Charismatic indiv. Morality: Good Irena Sendler saved over 2500 Jewish children during Holocaust. Found indiv who wanted to harbor these children. -Altruism: doing good at expense of own harm. Not deriving a direct benefit from helping behavior. Slide 6: Psychology’s Roots: Buddha, Confuscious Prescientific Psych: Mind is separate from body. Mind and soul does not die Plato: Greek Philosopher: nativism: indpt of environmental output. Born certain way. Aristotle: Plato’s student. Soul not separate from body. • -Philosophical Empiricsm: Arrived in world ready to take in info from world around us, blank slate. Learn from experience Rene Descartes: dualism, mind and body are distinct kind of entities. • Mind: non-phsyical, atkin to soul. Something special to humans • Body: material/physical • Mind influences body by pineal gland. Spirits act on muscles and lead nerves to open up pores in brain to form memories. • Right about nervous system but wrong about how functions. Pineal gland actually regulates hormones Structuralism: basic elements that constitute mind. Wundt: first psych lab 1879. Interested in consciousness: person’s projective experience Student Titchner. Focus on elements of mind. Functionalism: opposes structuralism. William James: mental states are individuated by function both generating behavior and in relation to other mental states. Adaptive function. Relied on theories of Darwin. • Natural selection. How populations give rise to new populations and looking at shared traits that individuals have that are passed on from each generation. • How both humans and nonhumans can reason about intention and goals of other beings. Highly adaptive. Mary Calkins: philosopher and psychologist. Discriminated against getting PHD bc woman. First women to enter field and be known for theories. First woman president of American Psych Association (APA) Slide 12: Psychological Science is Born Freud: The Unconscious Mind Father of psychoanalysis • Relies on inner and past sexual desires/experiences • Get pt’s to talk about anything and everything. Lie on couch turned away • Unconscious: place where we bury conflicts such as painful memories or unacceptable thoughts. Makes conscious life more difficult. The unconscious is the real us. • Drive by sexual desires that lay dormant but are somehow trying to affect our behavior. • Labeled radical/revolutionary • Studied hysteria: array of physical symptoms w/ no known med cause. Was with Charcot. Charcot believed it could be cured. Hypnosis. • Worked with Broyer and using the talking treatment to bring back earlier experiences to talk them out and improve condition. • Found that hypnosis can work but doesn’t last. Difficult to make a deferentiaition between memory and suggestions from hypnotist. • Developed free association: encourages pt’s to speak freely with little censorship/guidance. Revealed underlying conflicts. • Said all hysteria was caused by sexual abuse in childhood, unconscious sexual urges begin at infancy and then determine behavior. Not favored by Vienna. • Did self anaylsis when father died, becoming his own subject. • Dreams: The Interpretation of Dreams. • Psychoanalysis: id, ego, superego, Freudian slip. DAY 2: Slide 3: Humanistic Approach: -Rogers: Humanistic Approach: how current and environmental influences are for growth. Therapist has to be open and listen to client and client DIRECTS therapy. Doesn’t focus on unconscious but allows clients to explore tensions that may arise. -Maslow: Behaviorism: -contract to freud. -Look at what we can study and how we can rely on people’s behaviors to understand what is going on for them. *******Emphasis on learning. -Human nature doesn’t exist, people are infinitely malleable. -1960s, 1970s -Watson -Skinner: presented ideas about learning to public 1. anti-mentalism- obsessed with doing science and took scientific method very seriously 2. Emphasis on learning. -model for learning should be used for humans and other species of animals. -relationship btwn stimuli and responses -highly influential in animal studies. Cognitive Psych -look and understand computers and how humans shaped in same way. -encode and retrieve info and memories just like computers. -Noam, Alison = psych -poverty of stimulus argument. -a lot of capacities are innate, we become equipped to require language and engage in social life. Look at infants -Probe mental states through experimentation and functional analysis (divide mind up into various components) Slide 8: Research methodologies: folk theories”- everyday explanations for our understandings of people/things -our own exposures influence our interpretations. -Confirmation Bias: favor info that confirms your beliefs. Happen to emotionally charged people/ events -Hindsight Bias: “I knew it all along” phenomenon. Doing it in terms of past experiences. See events that have already occurred as being more predictable than they were when they took place. Scientific Theories -Describe behavior to make predictions. -Rely on scientific method ** Slide 11: Cognitive Dissonance Theory: makes prediction about future behaviors. -results from having 2 diff dissonances. - ex people smoking ciggarrettes know that it’s unhealthy but not believing its conclusive so continue with current mode of behavior. Empirical Process: 1) Theory developed: hypothetical explanation of natural phenomena. 2) Specific hypothesis made to test theory. 3) Test hypothesis 4) Based on results, we revise theory and make new hypotheses Where do we get hypotheses? Everyday life 1960’s Kitty Genovese murder: Bystander Effect Lenet and Larley did studies to see why people didn’t respond in the situations The Scientific Approach: -theories come from real life experiences and supported by replicable observations -hypotheses based on reliability (extent to which we find consistent results) and validity -hypotheses are open to empirical tests Research Methods: 1) Observational Method: observing and coding behavior. Doesn’t let you answer causality (how one variable influences/changes other) 2)Experimental Strength of Relationships: -Correlation coefficients range from -1.00 to +1.00. Measuring strength of relationship between two variables - positive correlation= both increase (Strong relationship) -negative correlation=one up, one down. (Weak relationship) -Limits of correlations: Doesn’t tell us much about causation. Not saying that having a high SAT score causes you to have a high GPA. Experimental Methods: only way to determine causality -need indpdnt variable: variable hypothesized, only thing you’re manipulating -need dpdnt: response to indpdnt variable Experimental Method: -Experiments have to be high in internal validity: ensuring that what changes you see in the dependent variable are being caused by ONLY the indpt variable. Direct relationship -Random Assignment to Conditions. -Probability Level (p
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