PSYCH UNIT 3: Day 1Personality 11/08/2013
What is Personality?
‘persona’ in everyday usage refers to social role or character played by an actor
derived from latin, originally referred to a theatrical mask
What inferences do you make?
outgoing, extraverted, introverted, rigid
Personality in everyday life:
it’s his personality , talking about a friend, friendly and independent
to what extend characteristics of personality then predict their behavior
thoughts, values, expectations
feelings (emotions, passions)
behaviors (actions, what you do)
DEF: a combo of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that make you unique
forms during childhood and is shaped by two behaviors:
inherited tendencies, or your genes
environment, or your life situations Field of Personality Psych: carry out research, make assessments, and develop and test theories
social psychologists: trying to make generalizations about diff personality types and what we can then
expect in implementing diff programs
ultimate goal is to understand, explain behavior, & predict future behavior
What do Personality Researchers Study?
Human Nature: what are people like
Individual Differences: how are people diff from each other
Royal Tannebaums: Ritchies vs Chaos
The unique life a single person
how is each person like no other?
3 Levels of Personality Analysis
every person is…
1) Like all others, human nature level (all people similar in some ways, enjoys a good meal)
2) Like some others group level (people vary on common dimensions, some are more social)
3) Like no others individual level (each person is unique, developed like for quantum physics)
Assessing Personality: Use of Surveys
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2)
clinical questionnaire, over history issues related to cultural biases
advantages: may give you indication of functioning for people
suffering from symptoms, helps you predict someone’s future behavior/ treatment. Researcher self report easy & cheap to
disadvantages: people dishonest, pressure to respond one way or another.
3) consciousness: reliable, motivated
4) Neuroticism: enduring tendency to experience negative states
5) Openness to experience
to come up with domains: asked 1000s of people to respond to questions tapping into concepts
five characteristics that emerged from the data
studies personality in how it changes over time and relates to other variables
TIPI (10 item personality inventory)
2 items for each of personality items
Scoring TIPI: sum two items, divide by 2. Scores range from 17
Goal Directed Constructs
Examples: personal strivings, personal project (what you focus on on daily basis), current concerns (things
you think about most in day, how do they relate to goals, do you engage in wishful thinking or anxious)
Goals focus points around which our behavior is organized
outcome expectancies: person’s assumptions about likely consequences of a future behavior. Assessing Goal Appraisal: Extremely low▯ extremely low
ex) my ability to make new friends
subjects asked to rank importance, success likelihood, and supports
for each goals
comparing goal appraisals provides info on the dimensions of the self
that are most important
Assessing Abstractness: high abstract (moral fiber) v low abstract, concrete goals (Ex cleanliness)
those who set more abstract goals are more prone to mental health
issues, if they fail an exam rather than saying I did poorly, they would
say I just suck at studying languages. If you place all eggs in one
basket, likelihood of getting burned is much higher
Self Identity: goals + self identity= + outcomes
goalsself identity= outcomes
discrepancy btwn actual and idealself (person you are today)= ?
discrepancy btwn actual and ought (who is that person, is that
person in future an ideal self)= ?
if there’s a discrepancy between actual self and the person you think
you should become, you’re more likely to result in a negative outcome. Rather than resulting in
depression, more prone to anxiety bc you may be trying to appease or please someone else. Not
something you truly want for yourself. If ideal self isn’t a match with actual self, then you more likely to
Pros & cons of assessing goalrelated constructs: still susceptible to social desirability
effect. If client giving you rundown of daily strivings and not being truthful, won’t help you increase their
emotional functioning. Assessing diff types of info to get a reading on people’s prsonality Day 2: Genetics/Personality cont 11/08/2013
Group Differences v Individual Differences: Day 2: Genetics/Personality cont 11/08/2013
Flower Pot Analogy: enriched v not enriched
Behavioral Genetics: compare individuals with varying degrees of genetic and environmental
similarity to explain how much phenotypic variation in a trait is due to environmental and/or genetic factors.
the more genetically similar individuals are, the more similar their behaviors.
more genetics influence trait, more genetic similar they are
MZ and DZ:
Monozygotic twins: result from single fertilized egg that splits giving two or more genetically identical
individuals. Share 100% of genes
Dizygotic (fraternal): two eggs fertilized separately. Share 50% of genes
proportion of phenotypic variance that can be accounted for by genetic differences among individuals in a
height, intelligence, personality
can change as a population changes and as an environment changes
Shared v Nonshared Environments
shared: common amongst all individuals in family. SES, Family Circumstance, Shared friends, parenting
nonshared: friends, teachers, illness Day 2: Genetics/Personality cont 11/08/2013
Twin Studies: conclusions that we can draw from correlation differences.
Genetic influence= rMZ> rDZ
shared environment= rDZ>1/2rMZ
nonshared environment= rMZ<1
Personality: BIG FIVE
extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience.
correlation of MZ twins are greater than correlation of DZ. Genetic influences are underlying all of
shared environments are not contributing to variation in phenotypes. Ex) SES and family circumstance
don’t affect factors.
Implicit methods for assessing personality. Eg Rorschach inblock test & thematic. Purposely ambiguous.
Psychologists are looking for unique responses people give to response to tests.
Apperception Test (TAT): projective psychological test developed in 1930s.
tell story about ambiguous stimuli.
Predictive capacity: behavioral capacity over time. Predict domain of achievement, affiliation, and power
want to look at peoples implicit motives along with self report measures to predict behavior in future.
used to figure out what kind of therapy would be best for individual.
forensics: personality measures for those who committed serious crimes
Limitations: not necessarily always valid, can’t assess and know that over diff people and circumstances
you’ll come out with same personality profile. Day 2: Genetics/Personality cont 11/08/2013
Psychodynamic Theory of Personality:
personality formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness.
Structure of Mind:
Id thirst, hunger, sexual desires
Ego conjunction with social word. Deal with social demands. Allows you to delay gratification of
particular wants and needs
Superego interactions with parents, finding what is right and wrong, internalize conscience. Result in
feelings of guilt when we violate conventions.
According to perspective: individual’s basic personality characteristics are determined by which mental
framework is most dominant.
manifested as anxiety
repression of memories: decreased activation of hippocampus.
If we fail to suppress memories: ego employs diff techniques of self deceptions called defense
mechanisms: unconscious coping mechanisms reducing anxiety generated by threats from
rationalization: give a reasonably sound explanation for behavior you think should be concealed.
reaction formation: unconsciously replacing inner wishes or fantasies with exaggerated version of
opposite. Trying to repress/manage anxiety about negative feelings you have against on person
projection: attributing own feeling/impulses onto someone else.
regression: reverting to immature behavior/ earlier stage in development to avoid internal conflict.
displacement: shifting unacceptable wishes/desires to neutral or less threatening alternative
identification: take on characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or being able to
cope. Kids who were bullied became bullies. (taking on persona of the other partner who broke up with
sublimation: channeling unacceptable sexual/aggressional desires into socially acceptable
Anna Freud: use defense mechanisms in a healthy way depending on nature of our experience with
parents and caregivers. See parents model certain defense mechanisms and might possibly acquire them
as a result. Day 2: Genetics/Personality cont 11/08/2013
more mature: sublimation, rationalization, intellectualization .
Psychosexual Stages & Development of Personality:
psychosexual stages: distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience
sexual pleasures from specific body areas (erotogenic zone), and caregivers redirect or interfere with those
first 5 years of life are crucial in formation of adult personality
Oral Stage: experience centers are mouth and sucking.1 year
Anal Stage: pleasures and frustration associated with anus. Wanted to be able to deficate and urinate at
time but not being able to bc of potty training. 13 yrs
Phallic 35: dominated by pleasure and frusturation with genetical region, as well as coping with powerful
incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealously and conflict.
Oedipus Conflict: child’s conflicting feelings toward opposite sex parent are usually resolved by
identifying with same sex parents
Latency: 5/6 years to puberty: not much psychosexual development. Primary focus is on further
development of intellectual, personal, creative skills.
genital stage puberty onward: sexual experimentation. Resolution of a lot of struggles of impulses and
desires. See seeds of more stable relationships being developed.
Why do critics say psychosexual stages are more interpretation than
not being able to test theories
may be able to describe what’s happening and what oyu see, but doesn’t tell you much about “how”
personality forms and why we see differences in diff points in development
don’t know the extent to which genes and environment play role in development
IMPT: theory laid groundwork for later theories in personality development
Humanistic Approach: Personality as Choice
Carl Rogers: self actualization is pinnacle of human development. Organism has one basic tendancy and
striving to actualize, maintain, and enhance experiencing organism.
we are the best experts on ourselves. Day 2: Genetics/Personality cont 11/08/2013
5 Characteristics of fully functioning self:
1) open to experience
2) existential living: living in moment, awareness that you’re a living being and you’ll die
3) trust feelings: feelings, instincts, gut reactions, own decisions are right ones. Don’t rely on someone
external to us to make decisions
5) creativity: creative thinking/risk taking
5) fulfilled life: person is happy/satisfied. Always looking for new challenges and experiences. Day 3 Humanistic Approach, Social Psych 11/08/2013
Humanistic Approach: Role of Self Concept
extent to which you like, value, and accept yourself`
3 Components: self worth (selfesteem), selfimage, ideal self
selfimage impacts how you think/feel about self in relation to world
selfdiscrepancy theory: idea of self from 5 years now than the person you want to be five years down
road. Things to change even though we want to be stable with identities/behaviors
2 primary motives driving our thoughts, behaviors, feeligns
1)need to be accurate
2) need to feel good about ourselves
benefits of high selfesteem? Status (worthy of respect), belonginess (inclusion and acceptance by others),
security (Regarding our value and mortality)
Related Concepts: locus of control/perceived behavioral control: more able to see difficulties as challenges
not threats. Don’t necessarily have control over situation
Incongruent v Congruent between self image and ideal self.
closer self image and ideal self are, higher self esteem we have, can self actualize.
studying social psych changes way you think about self and behaviors of others.
study of how our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by others (real or imagined)
how we think about self in relationship to other people. Day 3 Humanistic Approach, Social Psych 11/08/2013
What distinguishes it from sociology and philosophy:
1) level of analysis: assessment of individual in context.
focus on construals ways people perceive, comprehend, and interpret social world.
2) scientific method: theories subject to empirical analysis (not based on folk psychological theories or
motivated by desire to resolve social probs
reduce international conflicts thru development of effective negotiation strategies.
find ways to reduce prejudice an racism. Study social processes resulting in unfair and unjust legal
increase conservation and access to natural resources.
increase selfesteem and self confidence, decrease depression and anxiety, promote happiness, health
and wellbeing in individuals of all ages.
effects that others (real/imagined) have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behaviors.
Conformity: When & Why:
change in one’s behavior due to real or imagined influence of others.
looking at conditions when we actually rely on others for info.
Normative Social Influence: Day 3 Humanistic Approach, Social Psych 11/08/2013
influence of others for us to conform in order to be liked/accepted
implicit/explicit rules group has for acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members.
NSI results in PUBLIC COMPLIANCE (conforming publicly without actually believing in what others are
doing/saying), not PRIVATE ACCEPTANCE (when you conform, believing what people are saying/doing) of
ex Asch Line Experiment: people conformed on 1/3 of trials
f/u study: private v public ratings
writing down judgments instead of verbally saying it
conformity would drop dramatically
conformity increases as group size increases.
min # of people needed to be present to reach max level of conformity:
3 individuals. Increasing conformity.
Under what conditions are normative influences strongest?
strongest when come from indiv whose friendship/love/respect we desire
drive is to preserve yourself. Fear of “them” withdrawing love/friendship.
highly cohesive groups are less likely to make good decisions in certain situations.
Importance of Allies
Asch varied exp by having 6 of 7 confederates pick wrong line instead of all seven.
now subject was not alone
conformity dropped to 6% of trials as opposed to 32% when people were alone Day 4social psych cont. 11/08/2013
Why do people obey authority? Day 4social psych cont. 11/08/2013
Stanley Milgram: how can it be that people commit atrocities and harm oneanother. Group behavior and
obedience to authority.
voltage one person could inflict up on another. Looking at obedience. Stressful, uncomfortable
experience. Ethical conflict.
Phil Simbardo: mock prison
Film: don’t know that the person theyre shocking isn’t another participant as them.
Predictions about Obedience in Milgram’s study:
psych majors at Yale estimated the only about 1% of population would go to extreme
a sample of middleclass adults and a panel of psychiatrists made similar predictions.
Recap on results:
average max shock delivered was 360 volts
62.5% of participants went all the way, delivering the 450 volt shock
a fully 80% of participants continued giving shocks even after learner cried out seemingly in pain, saying
his heart was bothering him.
Reasons we obey:
difficult for subjects in Milgram’s study to abandon norm to obey for three reasons
1) fastpaced nature of experiment
2) shock levels increased in small increments
3) loss of feeling of personal reasonability. Day 4social psych cont. 11/08/2013
Would a female nurse intentionally harm a patient?
Hofling Hospital Study: taking order from dr to administer drug and know prior to this that the drug is
had a meeting, told about affects of new drug called astrogen and that it was extremely toxic and
not allowed to administer drug.
22 nurses received phone calls from male doctor they hadn’t met
dr ordered administration of 20 mg of drug Astrogen
1)against hospital policy to take prescription over phone
2) Astroten not on approved ward list
drug hadn’t been cleared for use under any circumstances. Knew that they were being asked to
21 of 22 nurses had intention to comply. Were stopped by staff psychiatrist before medication was
administered. Nurses indicated that similar orders had been given in the past. New set of nurses: 10 out 12
said that they’d refuse to follow dr’s orders.
Shock the Puppy Experiment
“teachers” were volunteers from undergrad psych class
Puppy shocked for incorrect response.
shocks always stayed at lowest level, but subjects didn’t know this
20/26 shocked puppy to maximum voltage.
subjects dind’t know voltage remained at 15 volts. A
All of individuals who shocked the puppy were of one gender: women
women form relationship networks and place a lot of importance on them
Consequences of Resisting Social infleunces:
if you disregard norms of the group by failing to conform, 2 things will most likely happen Day 4social psych cont. 11/08/2013
1) bring you “back into the fold” chiefly through increased communication
2) say negative things; leave you behind
Informational Social Influence
want to be accurate and look to others for “right” answers in ambiguous situations
ex) how “should” you vote in upcoming referendum that would raise your tuition to cover expanded student
ex) you hear someone scream… is it an emergency?
ex) do you cut a piece of sushi, or keep it whole?
Sherif (1936): made use of autokinetic effect
pts estimated how much light moved 15 feet away, even though light didn’t move
IV: Alone or with others
pts asked for personal estimates; light appeared to move 10 inches .
subjects underestimated the impact of other group members on their judgments.
Private Acceptance: conforming out of genuine belief that what others are doing or saying is right.
Public Compliance: conforming publicly without necessarily believing in what others’ are doing or
6 months later beliefs endure and might generalize to other contexts and situations.
Normative Influences on Body Image:
reliability on food supply in culture determines type of body that’s preferred.
where food supply is very unreliable: heavier body type is preferred
where food source is VERY reliable (US): more slender type of body is preferred. Day 5 Social Psych Cont. 11/08/2013
Martin Luther King Movie: Day 5 Social Psych Cont. 11/08/2013
do those who aren’t personally connected discount racism existing today?
attitudes towards member of some group based only on the fact that they have membership in that group.
defined by impacts on targets
stereotype: generalizations about characteristics of group
impact: distort our perceptions. Look for info that conforms stereotype that we hold. any info that
doesn’t fit stereotype we disregard (affect info we attend to).
affect social judgments: influence how much we like someone, reflected in the mood the person
“puts” us in. May result in confirmation via behavior (Selffulfilling prophecies, stereotype threat)
if you are under chronic stress▯ affects biology of body
discrimination: behaviors towards other group
Sources of Prejudice: Social Learning
Jane Elliott’s Experiment: Blue Eyes, Brown Eyes
watched children become discriminating within 15 minutes
how children being discriminated against can change in physical activities. Brown eyes first day took
longer bc were under stereotype threat. But second day when they were superior, made it through pack
Sources of Prejudice: Social Categorization:
classifying people into groups based on common attributes
ingroupoutgroup distinction affects attributions Day 5 Social Psych Cont. 11/08/2013
desirable behaviors▯ ingroup▯ stable/internal causes
desirable behaviors▯ outgroup▯ unstable/external causes.
Social Identity Theory: Taijfel: individuals seek to enhance their selfesteem by identifying with
social groups. This is successful to the extent that persons perceive their groups as somehow superior to
Three mental processes involved:
1. categorization: we categorize people in order to understand the social environment.
2. social ID: adopt the identity of our group. Self ID= any aspect of our selfconcept that is derived from
our membership in a group.
3. social comparison: we compare ourselves and our group with other groups= favorable impressions
Need of self esteem can result in personal (personal achievements) or social identity (favoritism towards
ingroup membership and derogation of outgroup).
Sources of Prejudice: IngroupOutgroup
IngroupOutgroup homogeneity effect: assume greater similarity among characteristics of outgroup than
Due to less expose to outgroup
Cultural components: Americans REALLY show the OHE compared to other cultures.
Regressive Racism: Rogers
historically Caucasians have discriminated against African Americaand African Americans have
discriminated against African Americans. Day 6 Social Psych Continued 11/08/2013
Blatant v Modern Racism
Modern Racism (outright denial that there is discrimination against minorities)
Great antagonism towards minorities still exists today.
Resentments about special “Favors” for minority groups (affirmative action, equal opportunity
Prejudice: Cool Neglect: Do not express overtly negative behavior but also don’t express any positive
Characterized as less friendly
Little to no smiling
Little to no accommodation of needs
Reservation of + rewarding behaviors
info processing biases
How is Modern Prejudice Assessed?
Use of Implicit Association Test (IAT)
unconscious racial biases affect behavior.
African Americans may also prefer white unconsciously.
Hope for Optimism:
blatant discrimination has decreased in US in recent years
younger people tend to view racial differences as stemming from social and economic factors, not from
inherited biological factors. Day 6 Social Psych Continued 11/08/2013
Prosocial Behavior v. Altruism
Prosocial Behavior: any act preformed with goal of benefitting another person
Altruism: prosocial but specifically refers to desire to help someone else at all costs.
3 Basic Motives for Why Help Others
1. Evolutionary Psychology: helping is instinctive reaction to promote welfare of those genetically similar to
us (i.e. kin selection). More likely to help someone related to you.
Norm of Reciprocity: expectation that helping others will have them help you in future. Over time the
benefit that you’ll drive personally
2. Social Exchange Theory: maximizing ratio of social rewards to social costs
3. EmpathyAltruism Hypothesis: feelings of empathy and compassion prompt selfless giving
Emotions and Helping
feel good, do good
people are more likely to help when in a good mood:
do well on a rest, receiving a gift, thinking happy thoughts, listening to pleasant music.
84% of people who found coins in pain phones help man pick up papers.
feel bad, do good
Negative State Relief Hypothesis: people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress
What bad feelings lead to prosocial behavior? Sadness, guilt Day 6 Social Psych Continued 11/08/2013
The Bystander Effect
greatest # of bystanders who observe an emergency, the less likely any of them is likely to help.
What happens in an emergency, ambiguous situation?
if distracted or in hurry: won’t notice event happening
if do notice, interpret as emergency which can result in pluristic ignorance
Noticing an Event:
being in hurry makes you less likely to intervene
those in seminary (becoming priests) who feels more responsible for helping others, if they’re aware of this
should they be more likely to help than other individuals who aren’t aware of it.
those most religious were no more likely to help than the least religious Day 7: Psychological Disorders 11/08/2013
The Medical Model
Conceptualization of psychological disorders as diseases:
similar to physical illness, highlights biological components, although not every disease can be
traced to an underlying cause.
DSM relies and talks about psych disorders from med model perspective
Classification of Disorders
DSM5: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders:
Classifies disorders based on symptoms
distinguishes one disorder from another
addresses prevalence of disorder in US population
to be used by license clinicians only… not to be used by public
How do you define a disorder?