Behavior, driven by:
Habits and stimuli in our immediate environment.
Tabula rasa (blank slate) – empty space waiting to be filled up.
Classical Conditioning: You learn to associate two things together. You respond to one stimuli as if it were
the other one was present.
Video: Classical Conditioning at BGSU – He associates the sound with the air gun.
It acts at the level of the unconscious. One stimulus serves as signal as the other one is on the way.
He found the terms we still use. What are the variables that affect the learning process? That’s what they
Thoughts and Emotions take a part in behavior.
Our behavior is dictated because the consequences of actions.
T’s Law of Effect
Classical is involuntary – Operating is voluntary (call someone to go out and he says yes/no/etc.)
People engage in repeated behavior when they get some kind of reward. If not, you don’t engage in the
same behavior so many times. Operating Conditioning is the learning of the behavior.
Learning is the key to understanding how experience molds behavior. Some mechanism allows us to keep
up (learn how to use a touch screen, a cellphone, behavior: turn the key consequence: turn on the car).
You don’t have to understand why something is going on, you learn the consequence.
Babies, animals, they don’t reason, they understand, they get the connection between behavior and
consequence. John Watson
He put a book out and put behavior in the map. “The only thing you should study in Psychology is
He showed the baby a rat, the baby did nothing. Then banged a gong and the baby started crying. Then
showed him the rat and the banged the gong, and so 7 times. Then, when they showed him the rat, he
started crying because it was the signal that the gong was coming.
Advertising: Phelps had lots of advertisers. He was caught smoking pot and lost them. That’s because he
turn from a positive image to a negative image. Advertisers don’t want to be related to someone with a
B. F. Skinner
What’s happening inside the body is still not enough to explain behaviorism.
Operant Conditioning: organism is free to operate, it’s a voluntary nature.
Behavioral Therapies: children, more than half are having behavioral therapies. Adults, half and half
between behavioral and talking therapies.
How thought process occur. How do you think, proceed, remember, etc.? Expectations and thoughts guide
Maybe we could influence people’s thoughts. It helps you reframe your thoughts.
Late 50s, early 60s. Focuses on how can make a person live up to his expectations.
Emphasizes what human have:
• Free will
• Innate human tendency toward growth
• The attempt to find meaning in one’s existence
• Conscious awareness
Humanists are opposite to Psychodinamic theories and Behaviorism
Started the movement Abraham Maslow
SelfActualization: Humans have a tendency to live uo to their maximum potential.
Pyramid. You can go up and down.
When basic needs are met (food and drink) you then experience psychological safety. Then, you reach the
feeling of belongingness. From there, you get back approval and recognition of your actions. If you are
lacking one of those, you are deficient.
Cognitive needs, you try to expand knowledge and understanding, get more education; at some point you
master some certain topic or area. After you get that, you can concentrate on aesthetic needs, beauty and
symmetry, Have a balance and order in your environment, not chaos. After you reach all these needs you
get selfactualized. All these are the growth needs.
Maslow argues that most people don’t get to be selfactualized.
Mother Theresa. Barak Obama. Dalai Lama. Gandhi.
What do you do with that? With your fame?
Has had less impact on psychological science than other perspectives. Nevertheless, humanists pioneered
research on process of psychotherapy.
Modern Positive Psychology Movement
Incorporates humanism’s focus on growth and selfactualization.
• Human strengths
• Optimal living
Studies thinking. Cognitive means thought. Studies field like perception, memory, how do we store and
organize information in our brains. How cognitive (mental) processes influence behavior.
Conscious Long Term Memory: things we know. Capital of a country, etc.
Unconscious Long Term Memory: automatic. Once you had to learn and pay attention, but it becomes so
automatic you no longer pay attention. Like, explain how to do something would be hard but showing it
would be easy.
If you learn something, something is changing your brain, you learn a memory. You memorize something. Over the time, the memory becomes stronger.
Brain is like a computer. View human beings as a information processors.
Hippocampus: are on your brain that you need in order to make a long term memory. Once you have it
there, you can do anything. Information doesn’t store in here. Information comes in, goes through the
hippocampus, makes it long term memories and then goes to different part of the brain. H makes
gelatina and then it sets, mostly, during sleep.
Gestalt: how something looks from the outside.
You see the whole thing; you don’t try to break it down into pieces. The whole is a guy and the parts are
the fruit it is made of.
“The whole is more that the sum of its parts”
Modern Cognitive Science
Neuroscience is becoming the thing in psychology.
The brain takes down function based on the information it gets. If you are blind, the part of the brain
made for vision, takes up another field.
Culture: traditions, ethnicity, race, religious background, beliefs, values.
The cause of behavior is the cultural environment. It emphasizes how environment and cultural learning
affect behavior, thoughts and feelings.
Social Norms: tells you how to dress, act, what is appropriate based on your gender, what is inappropriate.
All cultures have them, it kind of what defines culture. For culture to survive, these norms have to be
passed on. This is called socialization.
Socialization: the process by which culture is transmitted to new members and internalized by them.
Cross Cultural Psychology: it examines:
• Socialization in cultures
• Similarities and differences between people of different cultures
• Extent to which cultures stress Individualism and Collectivism
What you believe, who do you want to marry, etc. are influenced by culture.
Individualism: the society emphasizes the individual person, personal goals. They focus on their own
achievements. E.g.: America, West Europe. Collectivism: individual goals subordinated to the group. Personal identity defined by ties to family and
group. E.g.: communist countries, Cuba, Korea, China. Other noncommunist countries as Japan, India.
Cause of behavior:
• Neurotransmitters: brain chemical that send information back and forward.
Examines how brain processes and other physiological functions affect behavior.
How do we learn? When we learn, where?
It doesn’t really where you slice but how much you slice (study on rats). Not true in humans, it matters
where and how much.
Brain works with electricity, you manufacture it.
Neurotransmitters: Chemicals released by neurons that allow them to communicate with each other or
Classic Neurotransmitters (Big 6):
• Serotonin (5HT): it regulates our mood; you need enough of it to be in a good mood. If you don’t
have enough of it you’ll probably be in a bad mood or kind of depressed. It is involved in anxiety
disorder, autism, and personality disorder, between others. Is the chemical that regulates our
appetites: to go to sleep every night, when you have an appetite to eat food or not, regulates when
you want sex.
• Dopamine (DA): it’s a pleasure chemical, allow you to feel pleasure, doing stuff you enjoy.
Involved in unrelated jobs. You register the pleasure you get from things people can get addicted
to. If you lack it you wouldn’t feel pleasure when doing stuff you like. Coordinates a group of
muscles working together. Diseases from having too little dopamine: Parkinson, working
memory. Diseases from having too much dopamine: paranoia, hallucinations, schizophrenia,
delusional thinking (think things that are wrong are right). Short term memory, the let me work on
it. • Norepinephrine (NE) (nor adrenaline): works more within the brain. It’s involved in mood. Lack
of motivation, concentration, learning, attention, focus is related with norepinephrine. “Most
refined version of Dopamine”. Short term memory.
• Epinephrine (EP) (adrenaline): works more within the body.
• Acetylcholine (ACH): you need it for long term memory. Hippocampus + Acetylcholine work
together. Allows any muscle to expand and contract. It’s involved in moving food along your
• GABA: slows things down, helps you have slow refined movements. When released in large
quantities give a feeling of calm.
Looks at what is the influence of genes. Concordant twin studies show that environment takes a big part
on the people. Twins look same when graduation but not that same when they are 40. As time goes by you
see the influence of environment.
Advantages that genes give you to survive and reproduce.
• Frontal: 33 per cent of cortical tissue. CEO.
Assembles all information the brain has, process, and gives directives. Allows you to speak,
move, gives you personalities.
Executive Functions: planning and sequencing information. Think of the future, abstractly, reason
and logic, thinking from someone else’s point of view.
Broca’s area: speech information. Allows you to find the right words, say what you want to say,
sentences correctly structured, store vocabulary. Had 12 patients who had damaged the same area
of the brain and had difficulties talking. Expressive aphasia: can understand but can respond with
words to it, though can write. Grammar isn’t processed.
Motor Cortex: doesn’t do planning, does the execution, “muscle move”.
Frontal Lobe injury: Nonstop talking about them, don’t remember they told you something
already and tell it again.
Association Cortices: combine information from two or more senses. • Parietal: Sensory Cortex. Left side of the brain is about language. Right side visual abilities,
visuospatial, geometry, music.
• Occipital: vision. The cortex has different layers. One deal with colors, another with shades,
other with stimuli, and another with patters in stimuli, another with depth, etc. and so on, there
are hundreds of them. Super complex process.
• Temporal: hearing.
Wernicke’s area: speech understanding. Word aphasia.
Apperceptive Visual Agnosia: don’t perceive an object precisely. Can relate it to when you saw it,
where you use it but can’t say the name of the object. “Agnosia” lack of
Prosopagnosia: can’t recognize faces. Voices they can, but if you get a haircut, take of the braces,
have a freckle, don’t recognize that.
Left hemisphere processes negative emotions and right positive emotions.
Even though we have different areas on the brain that take different tasks, for example, someone who was
born blind, it’s not that there is a cortex that is not used, but other areas take usage of that area. Her visual
area was used for reading and writing as she was already blind.
It is a structure that connects hemispheres and allows communication between them.
Lateralization: greater localization of brain functions in one hemisphere.
Why couldn’t she respond? Because the hemisphere was messed up. Split brain doesn’t let both
hemispheres communicate. The right side can show and write what it saw but can’t say it. Left side can
say what it saw. Right side needs to send information to the left side to be able to talk about the
information it saw.
She saw Laugh but her right hand clapped. So she is able to say what her left side saw but not what her
right side saw, tough she can act what her right side saw, which is why only her right hand clapped.
States of Consciousness
• Private, nobody knows what you are thinking
• Subjective, going through your own filter
• Dynamic, always changing • Selfreflective, revolves around you, central to sense of self
• Consciousness is intimately linked with selective attention process
Measuring states of consciousness
• Selfreports, it is subjective, no real way to verify the information unless you have an outside
• Physiological Measures, EEG, read brain wave activity
• Behavioral Measures, count how many times you vostezar, sign of tiredness
Levels of consciousness
• Conscious, information that you are presently aware in this moment
• Preconscious, information that is not in conscious awareness but it can easily be called to
• Unconscious, information like events, memory, can’t call it into conscious immediately unlike
preconscious. You need other methods.
Consciousness is the tip of the iceberg (10%), the smallest part of our mind.
Conscious and unconscious processes are complementary, work in harmony (Reisberg, 1997).
Cognitive psychology is concerned with how you think.
• Controlled Processing: conscious use of attention, effort (e.g., learning to ride a bicycle)
• Automatic Processing: Perform tasks with little or on conscious awareness or effort. Become part
of the routine so you do it automatically, without any effort (e.g. riding bicycle while talking).
Circadian Rhythms (circadian: Latin for circular, every day). Sleep
• Daily (24 hr.) biological cycles
• Affect body temperature, some hormonal secretions, and other bodily functions.
• Hypothalamus: responsible for appetites and drives, we have 24 hr. appetites. • Melatonin helps you feel sleepy. At the same time, Serotonin is being released.
• SCN regulates circadian rhythms
• Pineal gland secretes melatonin
Stages of Sleep
1. Awake: Beta waves occur when awake and alert. Alpha waves occur when relaxed and drowsy. (1 st
line in image, you are drowsy)
2. Stage 1 of Sleep: Theta waves, a little bit bigger and slower (37 cps). There is a lot of activity going
on. People are fairly active, they talk, walk, when you wake up because you feel you are falling. Light
sleep. Couple of minutes.
3. Stage 2 of Sleep: Theta waves with unos quilombitos en las waves. 20 minutes.
4. Stage 3 of Sleep: Delta waves, slow, big waves (0, 5 1 cps). Deeply sleep. Couple of minutes.
5. Stage 4 of Sleep: almost unconscious with almost no brain activity, but there is still a lot going on.
You are aware of your body and the physical space. People still response to a certain stimuli. 20
6. REM Sleep: Rapid Eye Movement. Every 30 sec people’s eyes go back and forward. Brain activity is
up, blood pressure is up. Dreams that feel real happen in REM sleep. Sex arousal dreams happen
while REM sleep (penile erections and vaginal lubrication). “REM sleep paralysis”: motor cortex
blocks signals from the sensory cortex, therefore can’t respond, it is to protect us so that we don’t
react from our sleep. Difficult for voluntary muscle to contract. When you wake up but can’t move is
because your brain is away but your motor cortex still didn’t wake up. REM sleep help consolidate
information, memories; they get consolidated and solid.
6.1. Limbic system activity increases
6.2. Association areas near visual cortex active
6.3. Motor cortex active but signal blocked
6.4. Decreased activity in prefrontal cortex
6.5. Infants: half of their sleep is spent in REM to help them consolidate information.
6.6. Human growth hormone gets pumped out. It gets released. Older people don’t get almost any of
it released, that is why a 60 year old has lots of wrinkles unlike a teenager that has a lot of
growth hormones released and doesn’t have wrinkles.
6.7. REM behavioral Sleep Disorder: people can move, really common in Parkinson’s disease.
Changes in Sleep with Aging • Sleep less
• Kids need 1214 hr. of sleep, College 910 hr. of sleep, you have to remember and learn more,
there is a lot of information you have to remember.
• REM sleep decreases during infancy and childhood, fairly stable thereafter
• Time spent in stages 3, 4
Why we sleep?
• Restoration Model: sleep recharges bodies and allows recovery
• Evolutionary/circadian Models: increases chances of survival in relation to environmental
Why do we dream?
Freud: dreams were symbolic representations of unfulfilled wishes, unresolved conflicts (maybe
dreaming the same thing over and over again). We can’t express them directly when we are awake. Every
single thing in a dream is symbolic. Two story lines to every dream:
• Manifest content: surface story of the dream.
• Latent content: hidden, buried, psychological meaning of the dream.
Cognitiveprocess Dream Theories: dreams help you process information. Dreams help us solve
problems. If conscious is dynamic why not when you are asleep?
Activationsynthesis Theory: a dream is a biological event. Dreams are merely a byproduct of neural
activity. The brain synthesizes “best fit” story in response to random neural activation. (theory is too
simplistic, doesn’t explain to much of why we dream)
What do we dream about?
• Stuff that stresses us out
• Dream of falling: most common dream
• Dream about work, relationships, money
• Day residues • Unresolved conflict
• Hidden urges
• Wish fulfillment
• “every person in the dream is an aspect of you”
• Negative/unpleasant content is common
• Content is affected by cultural background, life experiences, and current concerns.
• Men dream more with male characters because men have a lot of conflict with other men that
with women. Competition with other men for work, etc.
• Women dream equally with men and women because they have more problems with both
• Fantasyprone personality
• Live in a vivid, rich fantasy world they control
• 2% to 4% of the population
• You don’t know what is going on around you
• You get transported when playing a video game or watchin