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Complete General Psychology Notes [Version 3] -- 4.0ed the final exam!

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
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Pysch 105 notes • Learning o Arelatively permanent change in behavior due to experience o 3 theories of learning  Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov • We learn to link 2> stimuli and anticipate events • Aneutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus • Vocab o Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) o Unconditioned Response (UCR) o Neutral Stimulus o Conditioned Stimulus (CS) o Conditioned Response (CR) • Stages o Acquisition  Conditioned response is being learned  Initial Stage o Extinction  Diminishing of a conditioned response o Spontaneous Recovery  The Reappearance of an extinguished response • Stimulus Generalization o Stimuli similar to CS elicit similar response o E.g. LittleAlbert • Stimulus Discrimination o The learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS • Garcia Effect o  Operant Conditioning  Observational/ social learning o Learning by Association  Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence  Conditioning • Learning associations between events in our environment • Lnaguage development o Sensitiveity period  When children are not exposed to any human language before age 12, their language abilities may never fully develop  “genie” o Langauge acquisition theories  Nativist theory • Noam Chomsky • Native ability • Language acquisition device • Innate mechanism  Conditioning/ learning theory • B.F Skinner o Argued children learn language through imitation, reinforcement and conditioning • Babies are positively reinforced for learning proper utterances • Parents can control reinforcement  Sociocultural theory • Imitation • Envir components o Culture o SES o Birth order o School o Peers o Parents o Bilingualism  More fluency when learned during sensitivity period nd  Age 7 starts to become difficult to learn a 2 lang  Correlations • More flexible thinking • Higher scores on non verbal intelligence tests • Ability to inhibit habitual responses • Lower rates of dementia • Thinking, reasoning etc o Cognitive Psych  Study of internal mental processes • Thought, learning, memory, perception, lang, prob solveing o Mental representation  Those words or images in our mind that stand for something  Mental rotation and functional properties of mental images  Concept - a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people  To further simplify we organize concepts into hierarchies  Parallel distributive processing • Associations between concepts activate many networks or nodes at the same time  Prototype • Best fitting example of a category • Robin fits better under bird than it does ostrich  Reasoning and problem solving • Deductive – general to specific o Every x has the characteristic y o This thing is x o Therefore this thing has y characteristics o If humans are mortal and if Socrates is a human then Socrates must be mortal o Premises are certain if they are true • Inductive – Specific to general o All sheep I have seen are white…therefore all sheep must be white o Can always be disproven by new information • Motivation o The urge to move towards one’s goals or to accomplish one’s tasks o Motivators  Food, fornicating, fighting, flight, etc. o Drive reduction models  Drive - an aroused tension state created by physiological needs that motivates behavior to reduce tension  Drives push us towards something  Comes from within you  Drive -> action to reduce drive • Achieve homeostasis o Approach and avoidance motivations  2 neural systems in the brain • BAS (behavioral activation system) o Activated by signals of potential reward • BIS (behavioral inhibition system) o Responds to simuli that signal potential pain o Incentive theories  Incentive: a positive or negative enviro stimulus that motivates behavior  Incentives pull individuals  Comes from outside of body  Intrinsic vs. extrinsic • Motivation within yourself vs. incentives o Evolutionary theories  Motives are a product of natural selection  Biological motives: hunger thirst etc  Social motives: affiliation, dominance o Optimal arousal model  Yerkes-dodson law  Sensory deprivation and the “pathology of boredom”  Flown(csikszentmiihalyi) – time goes more quickly o Hierarchical model  There is a order of needs that needs to be fulfilled  Basic needs must be met before you can move onto anything else  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs o Motivators  Hunger: survival of individual • What causes hunger • Stomach growling/ contracting??? • 1931 – surgeries to remove the stomach of rats o Patients still became hungry o Hunger does not come from the stomach • Happens in brain and endocrine systems • Hypothalamus o Involved in all endocrine system and attached to pituitary gland o Pituitary controls all other glands o Lateral – “on switch” – fat rat  Makes you hungry o Ventromedial nucleus – “off switch” – skinny rat  Makes you not hungry • Glucose o The form of sugar that circulates in the blood o Provides major source of energy for body tissues • Psychological factors o Highly reinforcing o Positive reinforcing  Yum  Fats, sugars o Negative reinforcing  Ends hunger • Cultural influences o What we eat is a product of observational learning o How much: varies between cultures o Stigmas  Lack of self-control, poor coping skills, lazy  However • Genes account for 40-70% of bmi • Remember: nature/nurture interaction • Obesity – causes o Evolution  Once had a need to store excess calories in the body as fat  Constant access to calories = excessive food consumptoion  Still adaptive for nondomesticated animals o Diet- usually gain weight back o Set point theory  The body monitors fat cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable • Eating disorders o Anorexia nervosa  Restricts eating to the point where they are at least 15% below their natural body weight  Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat  Disturbance in the way one’s body weight or shape is perceived  Females stop menstruating o Bulimnia Nervosa  Recurrent episodes of binge eating  Recurrent inappropriate on compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain • Vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, fasting, excessive exercise  Self-evaluation highly influenced by body shape and weight o Causes  Cultural • Western standards of attractiveness o Thinner frame (female) o MUSCULAR FRAME (MEN) • Difference in prevalence between men and women • Professions prone to eating disorders o Dancers, models, actors, athletes • Family environment o EDs can run in families o Emphasis on thinness o Hx of sexual abuse • Biological o Twin studies suggest a genetic tendency may exist o Low serotonin levels are linked to eating disorders • Sex: Survival of the species o Human sexual response  Sexual behavior – actions that produce arousal and increase likelihood of orgasm  4 phases of sexual arousal (differ between men and women) • 1) excitement • 2) Plateau • 3) orgasm • 4) resolution  Masters and Johnson • 1960’s o Biology of sexual behavior  Robert Trivers • Parental investment theory o Smaller investment -> pursue mating opportunities vigorously o Larger investment -> very choosy about mate • Men not required to invest much in producing offspring o Optimize reproductive potential -> mate with as many as possible • Women required to invest a lot o No incentive for mating with many men o Optimize reproductive potential -> selective in choosing a mate o Mating Preferences  Males • Goal: find female w. good reproductive potential who can nurture offspring • Look for: youth –reproductiveness and attractiveness –health and fertility  Females • Goal: find a male who can provide resources for her and her offspring • Look for o Intelligence o Income o Social status • Social motivation o Need to belong: affiliation  Strongest human need  Rejection-> physical and psychological consequences  Harlow’s Monkeys • Will baby monkeys choose a wire mom who feeds them or a cloth mom who can’t feed them • Baby more likely to go to the comfortable mom o Need to excel: achievement  Achievement motivation: desire to do things well and overcome difficulties and obstacles o Motivation to succeed – extent to which you really want to be successful • Emotion o Affective trait: stable baseline personality, basic way you approach world o Mood: less permanent background affect or feeling, makes certain emotions more likely o Emotion: reactions to specific events  brief acute changes in conscious experience and physiology that occur in response to a personally meaningful situation o All fall under the term affect • Conditions that strengthen conformity o One feels competent or insecure o Group of 3 or more o Group is unanimous o One admires the group o Others are observing ones behavior • Obedience: Following commands, usually those given by someone in an authoritative role o Stanley milgram (1933-1984)  Method • PT -> teacher • Confederate -> learner • Confederate strapped into chair to prevent movement and electrode placed on his arm • Teacher reads a list of two word pairs and asks “learner” to read them back • Answer incorrect -> teacher shocks learner with 15 volts  65% went up to highest shock level  The role of an authoritative figure can increase chances of increased  Ordinary people without any hostility can become agents of terrible things  Obedience decreased when • Contact increased • Experimenter was not present • Witness previous teachers refusal  Tendency to obey • More likely to obey when: o High status of authority figure o Belief that the source of authority will be responsible o Absence of clear cut point for disobedience o Gradual increase in obedience o Philip G. Zimbardo  Method • Random assignment o Guard or prisoner • Taken to mock prison in basement of Stanford • No instructions as to how to behave  Results • Guards became abusive • Prisoners developed emotion symptoms and physical ailments o Some depressed and apathetic o Some rebellious and angry • Social Roles • Diffusion of responsibility o Safety in numbers? o Kitty Genovese o Bystander effect  Phenomenon in which the greater the number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help o Factors influencing whether one will ntervene in an emergency  Event must be noticed  Event must be interpreted as emergency  Many other people present  Cost-benefit analysis  Must know how to help • Social perception o Way in which we make sense of our social world o Biases and fallacies often make our social perceptions inaccurate o Attriubution theory  Explain others behaviors by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition • Dispositional attributions • Situaltional attributions  Bias in attribution • Fundamental attribution error o Underestimate the situation and overestimate personal disposition • Napolitan and George o Had a college student talk with young woman who acted either aloof and criticle or warm and friendly o ½ students told her be spontaneous o ½ told she was instructed o Effect?  Nothing – the info was disregarded • Self serving bias o Situation attributions our failure but dispositional attribution our successes o Failure – the test was unfair o Success – I studied hard o Schemas:  Social schemas • Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people  We tend to categorize people into schemas • Frat boys, nerds, musicians  Stereotypes • Special type of schema • Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics cuz of their group membership o Based on sex, age, membership in ethnic or occupational groups, etc. • Normal cognitive process o Often automatic, saves time and effort required • Effort saved often at the cost of accuracy • Prejudice & Discrimination o Prejudice- a pre judgement that is unjustifiable and usually negative toward a group or its members  Negative attitude o Mixture of Beliefs (stereotypes), emotions (hostility,envy,fear) and predispositions to action (discrimination) o Discrimination = negative behavior  Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members o Prejudice -> discrimination o Roots of prejudice  Social/cognitive • Social inequalities o Blame the victim • Categorization o Ingroup and outgroup / us vs them o Comes from: strong need to affiliate & divide into groups, group membership-▯ social identity  Emotional roots • Fear heightens pride(patriotism within a group) and produces loathing and aggression toward “them” • May be triggered by perceived/ imaginary threat to you’re your group • Scapegoat theory o Prejudice provides an outlet fir anger by providing someone to blame o Reducing Prejudice  Education • Reducing ignorance and/or fear  Encouraging equal status contact • Contact when status is unequal perpetuates neg. sterotypes • Sustained close contact • Equal status • Working towards common goal • Cooperative rather than individual learning • Attitudes and Beha
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