[VERSION 2] COMPLETE Perception and Behavior Notes: Part 3 -- 4.0ed this course!

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 222
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Final Exam Study GuideChapter 10 Perceiving Depth and Size1 Cue Approach to Depth Perception a Oculomotor Cues feel the positioning of our eyes and tension in eye muscles Created by i Convergence when we look at nearby objects ii Accommodation change in shape of lens occurring when we focus objects at different distancesb Monocular Cues work with only one eyei Pictorial Cues sources of depth information that can come from 2D images1 Occlusion one object partially covers anothera Eg tree occludes a building far away2 Relative Height a Objects below horizon higher in visual field more distantb Objects above horizon lower in visual field more distant3 Relative Size when objects equal size closer one takes up more of the visual field a Eg further car smaller than nearer one4 Perspective Convergence parallel lines appear to come together in distancea Eg train tracks 5 Familiar Size distance judged based on previous knowledge of object sizesa Eg judge position of dime quarter and halfdollar 6 Atmospheric Perspective distant objects appear less sharp and have blue tinta Eg looking at Canal ships in distance7 Texture Gradient separate elements appear more packed as distance increasesa Eg buildings in distance on Corredor8 Shadows indicate where objects are locateda Eg balls on checkerboardii MotionProduced Cues 1 Motion Parallax closer objects glide past faster but objects in distance move slower2 Deletion and Accretion objects covered or uncovered as we move relative to them a Deletion covering b Accretion uncovering c Binocular Cues depend on both eyesi Binocular Disparity difference in images in both eyes1 Human eyes spaced 7cm apart so brain gets slightly different pictures of same scene2 Physiology of Depth Perception a Tsutsui Experiment i Monkeys matched texture gradients that were 2D pictures and 3D stereograms ii Recordings from parietal lobe neuron showed response to o Pictorial cues o Binocular disparityBinocular Depth Cells respond best to a specific degree of absolute binocular disparity b Blake and Hirsch Experimenti Cats were reared by alternating vision between two eyes ii Results showed they 1 Had few binocular neurons 2 Were unable to use binocular disparity to perceive depth 3 Perceiving Size a Perception of sizedepth interaction i Our ability to perceive an objects size can sometimes be drastically affected by our ability to perceive the objects distanceii Eg whiteout with helicopter and box on the groundb Visual Angle angle of an object relative to the observers eye Depends on iSize of stimulus iiDistance of stimulus from observer iii Objects of different size can have the same visual angle 1 Eg A smaller object thumb can completely cover a larger object that is far away clock iv As object moves closer to retina the size of the angle increases1 Halving distance between stimulus and observer doubles the size of the retinal imagev Thumb method of determining the visual angle 1 When thumb at arms length whatever it covers has a visual angle of about 2 degreesc Holway and Boring Experiment distance and size perception interrelated i Observer was at the intersection of two hallways ii A luminous test circle was in the right hallway placed from 10 to 120 feet away iii A luminous comparison circle was in the left hallway at 10 feet away iv Task was to adjust the comparison circle to match their perception of the test circleSetup of Holway and Borings 1941 experimentThe observer changes the diameter of the comparison circle in the left corridor to match his or her perception of the size of the test
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