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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 251
David Shim

PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY Personality – the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intra-psychic, and physical, and social environments” • PERSONALITY THEORIES o Serve as models of the human psyche o Nomothetic (applies to everyone) and idiographic (describes you and is specific) levels  Aristotle and galileo’s perspective  Idiographic (galileo) – one single case can disprove a law • Bigfoot and sasquatch, nobody has found him yet • Trait based approaches – academic research psychologists o Tests FREUD • Displacement – being pissed at roommate instead of boss o Unconscious can influence conscious • Projection – you’re angry but you blame somebody else as angry. You are being influenced by your own feelings to be biased against someone else o Unconscious can influence conscious • Reaction formation – being jealous • Transference - Another definition is "the redirection of feelings and desires and especially of those unconsciously retained from childhood toward a new object."[2] Still another definition is "a reproduction of emotions relating to repressed experiences, especially of childhood, and the substitution of another person ... for the original object of the repressed impulses. • Day residue • Creative illusionism – they develop a theory and idea and put it into the world. The more people agreed the more they became true. The strange rash. Like OMG YES I HAVE THAT TOO. Or no eww wtf get away. • Adequate theories all have to give at least some of these things 1. Reality – some truth, but some ppls realities are different like the kid who cant count how many animals are in the zoo 2. Normal and pathological processes 3. Change process - behaviorism 4. Development SIGMUND FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY • Transference – take old feelings and transfer them onto something else • Passive aggressive • Illogical behaviors – not in their normal or reasonable way • Irrational behaviors • Neurosis – o Neurotic: 2+2=4….but ive never been happy with that rule. Whos idea was that? • Allusive association SIGMUND FREUD 7 key issues • 1. Topographical • 2. Dynamic • 3. Economic • 4. Genetic • 5. Structural • 6. Object relations • 7. Adaptation – if you do something over and over you’ll get over it because 弄弄弄 • Attachment axis is hypothalamus-amygdala-right frontal cortex • Psychic determinism – acting on impulses • Parapraxis – irrational and illogical o Freudian slip of the tongue – you look fugly I MEAN PRETTY o Collection of when your unconscious comes out in speech • Conflict theory – we are not always reliable. We are not always creatures of willpower. New year resolutions where we want to do something but don’t. the idea that wanting something is stronger than having it. • Anna O – associative disorders. Space out. Psychosomatic illness o Seduction theory • Free association – say whatever comes to your mind as long as it’s the truth • Compromise formation/seduction theory – missing sister was replaced by a symptom. But then when she remembered about the sister, the coughing symptoms went away • A or I – affect or ideation. If a traumatic experience happens, the I or A would be repressed because together would be too much for the patient to handle o Injury – cure model o Affect repression – talk about the most horrific thing in the most monotone voice o Ideation repressed – flooded by emotions and cant even talk o Treatment – just talk about it forever until you become desensitized to it • Resistance FOUR PERIODS OF FRUED • 1895 – topographical period o Conscious>preconscious>censor system (defense mechanisms)>unconscious o Unconscious – no immediate access to o Preconscious – the borderland, the neutral zone. So that the conscious and unconscious doesn’t mix or people would go insane. You can access preconscious if I ask you what your favorite color is. Kind of like your memory system. o Denial and repression  Denial – absolutely believes something didn’t happen  Repression – forgetting you forgot • 1911 – fantasy and instinct period o Libido - energy o Instincts  Life (eros) – sex  Death (thanatos) – aggression o Mourning and melancholia (1915, published in 1917)  Depression – SIGECAPSH • Sleep – usually decreases. If it increases then that’s an atypical reaction • Interest – decreases • Guilt – increases • Energy – decreases • Concentration – decreases, which is linked to sleep • Appetite – usually goes down. It can go up but it’s an atypical reaction. If it goes up it’s psychological eating • Psychomotor retardation/agitation – you can get one or the other. Men through depression through anger. • Suicidal/homicidal thoughts – increase o Seasonal affect disorder – depression over seasons o If you have 5 of these symptoms or more for 2 weeks or more then you are depressed o Grieving is good because then the dead person is living within you o Cathexis-the energy to really want something o De-Cathexis (catharsis) – releasing energy like a punching bag so that you won’t be pissed anymore. Or finally getting the reward, dat feeling. BUT IF YOU DON’T DO THIS, then you grieve, and the negative energy comes back at you and gets you depressed. Then you go into suicidal/homicidal thoughts. Gg. o Paranoid people are angry people who project their anger onto something else o Abreaction/catharxis – the feeling of being relieved after telling someone a secret or something. That’s how therapy works because people feel better. Release of unconsci
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