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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 251
David Shim

PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY 2 Heinz Hartmann – father of modern ego psychology • Noted a problem with freud’s structural theory • Freud believed that conflict was essential • Influenced by anna freud’s thinking • Began to expand on freud’s notion conflict • Stressed importance of social factors in development • Freud thinks that the ego steals libido from the id • Hartmann’s Thesis – id-ego matrix o Freud’s structural model has a flaw to it:  Ego steals energy (libido) • Theoretical points o Newborn is NOT only a creature of drives o “ego apparatuses of primary autonomy” o Ego is a “rational institution” o Definition of mental health  Conflict free vs conflicted times o Average expectable environment • Process of perceiving is conflict free • 4 regulatory processes o A. equilibrium between environment and individual o B. equilibrium of the instinctual drive o C. structural equilibrium of mental components o D. allows for special apparatus of ego to work (go from primary to secondary autonomy)  Secondary happiness – happiness that the child determines for herself • Hartmann confirmed the importance of interchange between the child and parents • Clinically showed that certain personality disorders – borderline personality disorder may be the result of disruptions in the parent-child dyad • How does the Id and the ego share libido? o Share their goals o BUT if they have the same energy and same goal, then how can they be in conflict? o Hartmann would say that not everything is conflict related • Id-ego matrix (hartmann) o the ego develops on its own in early life o id and ego exists in parallel with each other  more optimistic view of humans o you have a higher conception of the situation without being extremely affected by your id o own source of energy/libido in order to be a true theory of conflict • how does the average expectable environment (goodness of fit) o an environment where there is a good fit between the child and the adult o the name is ‘average’ because it leads to an average human functioning for a normal child o the average expectable environment for a two month old baby is an attentive and caring parent • what is the mental equilibrium? o Between the individual and the environment o Homeostasis – chill o When you are conflicted, you need resources to deal with the problem o How to meet mental equilibrium in an ever conflicting environment  Adaptation  As a child, get comfort from parents • Primary autonomy vs. secondary autonomy o Primary autonomy is what you’re born with. Biologically given things o Secondary autonomy – the more rational thing society gets. A feedback loop from influences in the environment o Primary autonomy leads to the secondary autonomy  That’s why the id and the ego are separate ANNA FREUD • Believed that the ego and the id were inescapably bound and regulated by the super ego o The devil and the angel-like phenomenom • First system and comphrehensive study of defenses • Focused on mastery in children (not simply little adults) • Assessment and treatment of children (emphasis on developmental problems and fixations) • Understood how the mind defends itself (but at the same time allows awareness of conflictual material) o Changed our understanding of the child world/child mind o When children were physically sent away from parnets, the children didn’t look psychologically healthier o When children can endure a lot of hardship as long as they are with their parents o When children are separated from parents, a lot of problems happen DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY (processes of the ego) • Anna freud was interested in how kids confront life siutations o Example: separation from other, birth of siblings, illness, school/peers, play, adolescence and emergence of sexuality, love • Each psychosexual development is associated with a drive component that evokes characteristics defenses o Oral – denial, projection, introjections, regression, turning against the self o Anal – reaction formation, isolation, undoing o Phallic – repression o Latency and genital – sublimation • Idiosyncratic functioning – we wont have the same defense mechanisms • Defense mechanisms from earlier phases of development persist side by side with those of later periods o Example: Infantile cast – when you act like a kid which is inappropriate. Engage in age inappropriate behaviors. Frady cat! • Multi-axial system o 1. Clinical Disorder – occur with the failure of repression. Things don’t work so it starts to leak out. Unconscious emerges into awareness  Depression, schizophrenia o 2. Personality disorders – if repression is effective, then things then pressed in. person becomes rigid, harder to treat in therapy. Defenses are silent and invisible o 3. Medical conditions o 4. Stressors (level of stress)  Poverty, loss of parent, drugs, violence, violence at home, legal problems o 5. Global assessment of functioning (GAF)  1 to 100 scale, on the three theatres of action • Psychological, interpersonal, occupational psychosocial functioning • If you are 70 or higher then you are ‘functional’ • 50-70 – some problems • Less than 50 then gg you’re hospitalized • Why do we have axis 1 and axis 2? o Symptoms vs personality disorder ANNA FREUD AND GEORGE VAILANT • Classified defense mechanisms according to whether they were meant to control sexual or aggressive impulses • We try to repress things that hurt us • Narcissistic defenses used by children and psychotic people o Projection  There is also an immature type which less severe  Paranoia is the best example o Denial-seeing but refusing to acknowledge what one sees or hears; negating what is actualy heard; not all denial is psychotic (example: adaptive in trauma survivors – denying they were abused); the neurotic avoids becoming aware of some painful aspect of reality whereas the psychotic denies reality and replaces it with a fantasy or delusion  Unconsciously motivated negation o Distortion – grossly reshaping external reality to suit inner needs, beliefs, blahblah employing sustained feelings of delusional superiority/entitlement  Reality is troubling, so to distort it would be easier  Range is wide, the worst is hallucination • IMMATURE DEFENSES (used by adolescents, also seen in depression and obsessive/compulsive) o Acting out-expression of an unconscious wish  YOU WANNA GO? YEAH? YEAH! LETS FCKING GO.  Pretending to feel good in sexual abuse o Blocking-  Tip of a tongue phenomenom  Why can’t I remember that? o Hypochondriasis-you internalize mental problems and believe you have serious illnesses when your body is fine  Seriously believe they have serious illnesses  If you feel guilt, you feel sick to your stomach o Introjection  A. developmental function – taking in objects  B. defense function • Introjection of loved ones – internalization of characteristics o Example: you start to act like them and talk like them o “that’s a questionable statement” • Introjection of feared objects – avoid anxiety by internalizing aggressive characteristics o Example: “if you can’t beat them, join em”…or being them o Passive-aggressive behavior – aggression toward an object expressed indirectly and ineffectively through passivity…  If someone is mad, passive-aggressive behavior makes them madder at you  When someone gets fcking mad at you, you just quiet down and say ‘why are you so loud?’, gets them pissed as fck  Hallmark of adolescent behavior  Sometimes sarcasm is passive aggressive  Silent treatment – your goal is to make them understand ur pissed o Projection – take your own unacceptable behaviors and project them onto someone else  Example: you are cheating on your bf and you accuse ur bf of cheating of you o Regression – returning to previous stage of development or functioning to avoid the anxieties involved in later stages o Schizoid fantasy –  The silent treatment, pretend someone isn’t there  Thinking about own sort of stuff like dozing off  Unique individualized fantasy world in someones head o Somatization – conversion of psychic conflict into bodily symptoms  Getting “sick” to avoid something that is psychologically difficult to handle  The thing where I yawn and shit before races but then im fine later o Turning against the self – changing an unacceptable impulse that is aimed at others by redirecting it against oneself  Teenager boys who may hit themselves instead of hitting the wall NEUROTIC DEFENSES • Seen in adults under stress (also OCD and hysterics) o Controlling – excessive attempt to manage or regulate events/objects in the environment in the interest of minimizing anxiety and solving internal conflicts  Make lists o Displacement  Yell at your spouse when you are really angry at your boss o Dissociation – temporary but drastic modification of character or sense of personal identity to avoid emotional distress  Dissociate most common when tired or fatigued  Kind of doze off or stop to listen to what ppl say o Inhibition – unconsciously determine limitations  You determine for yourself how far you can go, like not going to watch a scary movie when ur 28 years old o Intellectualization – control of affects and impulses by way of thinking about them instead of experiencing them  Thinking about who to date  Thinking about something but not experiencing them, which is bad because you don’t feel things… o Isolation – splitting or separation of affect from content resulting in repression of either idea or affect or displacement of affect to different/substitute content  The ideation and affect repression thing from last semester o Rationalization – justify attitudes and beliefs when they usually  Fired? I QUIT. I DIDN’T LIKE THE JOB ANYWAY!  You justify something afterwards o Reaction formation – whatever bad thing you’ve done, you have the opposite feelings  Anti cathexis  “killing them with kindness”  Someone who is super nice to someone they hate o Repression – expelling and withholding from conscious, awareness of an ide aor feeling  Primary repression  Secondary conscious o Sexualization  Paraphilias  The reason why ppl have fetishes o Undoing – symbolically acting out in reverse, something unacceptable that has already been done. Avoid things in out there by doing rituals to deal with the real world.  Hand washing after doing something guilty because you’re trying to undo the guilt. You’re just trying to wash the feeling away  OCD with the lights cuz guy didn’t want his blood drawn • MATURE DEFENSES – normal adult adaptive mechanism o Altruism – constructive and instinctually gratifying service to others  Altruistic surrender – fulfill others needs to the detriment of the self • Example: a soldier throwing himself on a grenade to save others  I like helping people and im good at it  True altruism – is benefitting others and yourself too o Anticipation – realistic anticipation of or planning for future inner discomfort  Crap I got a 70 on my exam, if I get an 80 next time I can pass, if I get lower than 73 ill fail gg no re o Asceticism  Being able to say no to something pleasurable  Like saying no to the desert tray and feel good about it o Humor – overt expression of feelings without personal discomfort or immobilization and without unpleasant effect on others; humor allows one to bear and yet focus on, what is too terrible to be borne  Laughing about something when it’s really sad, like at a funeral you say, “he would have said gg no re”, and ppl laugh o Sublimation – rechanneling some negative energy into things that are bettering yourself, or just fixing your problems in healthier ways  Healthy outlets like gaming or sports o Suppression – conscious or semi-conscious decision to postpone attention to a conscious impulse or conflict  Omg it’s a new character on LoL! NO I CANT, I needa do my paper. Ok focus on paper. • 10 defense mechanisms associated with adult neuroses that were normal in children (Shapiro and anna freud) o Regression, suppression, reaction formation, isolation, undoing, projection, introjection, turning against the self, reversal (somebody punches you, and then you punch somebody else, you do something back to someone else), sublimation (normal both in children and adults) • Symptoms vs. character disorders o If defenses work, the person become rigid (etiology of character disorder)  Defenses are silent and invisible o Only when defenses fail, do we see unconscious material emerge into awareness  Allows the analyst to explore these issues ROLE OF DANGER • Anxiety is what is felt by the people experiencing danger o It can be the result of experience or anticipation of danger – will mobilize defenses • 3 sources of danger o Adult neurotic – moral anxiety – superego dissatisfaction (superego and ego conflict) o Child neurotic – realistic anxiety – fear of danger in real world. Threat emanates from a known danger outside the person o Neurotic anxiety – danger of the strength of the unconscious impulse  Precipated by an unknown of repressed danger  Impulse is too strong – threatens ego independence (ego and id conflict)  What is treated in therapy  The more you try to keep away from your mind, it goes deeper into your head and then you have to use defense mechanisms • Therapy with children o 1. Preparatory stage o 2. Don’t analyze too much o 3. Different treatment goals than adults o 4. Therapist as a “very special kind of teacher” FINAL CONTRIBUTIONS FROM ANNA FREUD • Contributions o First to do full written child assessments o First to look at attachment o Also looked at resiliency • 6 developmental lines o 1. Dependency to emotional self-reliance - some people still might be emotionally dependent of people o 2. Suckling to rational eating o 3. Wetting/soiling to bladder and bowel control o 4. Irresponsibility to responsibility (includes body management) o 5. Body to toy – play to work o 6. Ego centricity – companionships (impacts object relations and self psychology) ROBERT BROOKS • Fostering resiliency – charismatic adults o Charismatic adults – adults who can give islands of competency. Made people feel like you can do it. They work because they understand children go through a pyramid of development o Resiliency – ways to factor stress. Anything that helps to build someone back up quicker  One of the ways to gain resilience is to look up to charismatic adults • Pyramid of development Accountability Natural Consequences Relationships Insight does not always lead to behavior change Behavior Modification MARGARET MAHLER – “SEPARATION INDIVIDUATION” PROCESS • Developmental psychologist • Dual processes – meaning that you can have separation an
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