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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 251
David Shim

PERSONALITY PSYCH. LAST PART YO WINNICOTT • Pediatrician and child analyst • The capacity for concern and to feel guilty were psychological achievements • Consultation model (spatula and squiggle techniques) o Spatula technique – sterilize a bright and shiny thing and see what the parents would do o Squiggle technique – was able to engage people by drawing a line and then drawing something on top of it • Role of annihilation anxiety and transitional objects Overview • 1. “life is normally difficult” • 2. “meaning of symptoms • 3. World of “ordinary life” • 4. “modifications of the “self other” continuum (kohut) Capacity to pity – his overview of life • infant (no concern) - begins in pitiless. Relationship to external objects to satisfy its own needs. • Growth (ability to have concern for others) – maturity is indicated by the capacity to pity Personality development • First 5 or 6 months of life – child achieves a series of important cognitive and emotional developments o 1. Personality integration  Cuddling – a primary form of communication to show that you are cared for and loved o 2. Personalization – when a child through the cuddling process, takes ownership of the body. Kid starts to understand that they have a body. o 3. Realization –  “good enough” mothering – holding environment for the child  Annihilation anxiety – the basic danger involves a threat to psychic survival, experienced as a present menace or as an anticipation of an imminent catastrophe. The experience entails fantasies and/or feelings of helplessness in the face of inner and/or outer dangers against which the person feels he can take no protective or constructive action.  Read more: anxieties#ixzz2OxGiYhkd  “going on being”  Sources of external impingements  Problems can result in the origins of the “false self” – be fake to deal with reality. Put on a fake happy smile.  The “mask of the false self” – false self has to protect the real self. • 5 levels of the false self o Extremely maladaptive (mask)  Very troubling, false self takes over everything. Like work, relationship, everything. And ppl only respond to this false self. Over time the false self will fail because you cant always live like this.  Combine false self with homicidal tendency, sexual deviancy, and absence of empathy, that’s a serial killer o Moderately maladaptive (caretaker)  Person has a secret life, the false self is the caretaker of the true self. But secret life never really works out o Minimally adaptive (Defender)  Border between adaptive and maladaptive. False self protects the true self until the proper conditions arise for the true self.  The false mask of people who have been sexually abused.  Most people will suicide when they discover they are in big pain. A permanent solution to a temporary problem o Moderately adaptive (imitator)  Act “as if” someone was happy  You cluster up healthy people –ionno something like that, a healthier solution o Adaptive (facilitator)  Your false self is very socialized. A public and a private persona. Act right when you have to act right.  All faces of yourself are you. You are able to control your urges TRUE SELF • True self is the sense of feeling ‘alive’ in one’s body • Life’s difficulties are taken in stride • Develop the normal false self or social mask. Both a public and private self, but this is appropriate • False self is a sublimation of the true self rather than its defender • When the gap between the true and false self is tremendous, then problems occur. Cuz then the true self doesn't know how to communicate. Pretty much being fake. o When false self is too successful, it can hide the true self TRANSITIONAL OBJECTS • Represented of the ‘me’. Items children have to soothe themselves. Using external objects for self soothing. o Like my blanket • BLANKET! o Can be affectionately cuddled, love, mutilated :3, must never change unless by myself, must survive instinctual loving and hating, must give warmth or move or have texture, has a vitality of its own, not a hallucination (so imaginary friends don't work) • For adults, picture frames are transitional objects because you remember the good times in the pictures OBJECT RELATIONS IN SEVERE SEXUAL TRAUMA • Emotional neglect – present in all types of trauma. o Most basic for trauma • Sexual abuse damages the victims relationships and view of themselves • Simple trauma – a one time trauma • Complex trauma – more troubling. Starts out with a child who is abused in childhood and continuously abused in adulthood and stuff. • Iatrogenic – when caring therapist creates a problem by saying stuff like “I think someone hurt you” or “I think you have trauma”. You cannot explicitly say whats wrong, u need to get the data. Otherwise people will start imagining things • Freud defined trauma as: event is traumatic if it stimulates thoughts/affect so disruptive that the psyche is unable to integrate the stimulus events and the psychological disruption and ensures” o Seduction theory, was the first to realize trauma • Trauma occurs when the psyche is overwhelmed, tied to fear of annihilation and to object loss • Steven prior – trauma is understood as damaging the capacity to relate to others and evoking annihilation anxiety • The traumatized are not a separate class of people distinct from and less than the rest of us • Can happen to us when we experience overwhelming events that are above and beyond the normal course of our loves 8 PROBLEMS IN LITERATURE 1. Borderline children are not borderline adults a. Borderline children are much more chaotic 2. Limitations of etiological theories (Mahler) a. What about the other times in children? Only in childhood 3. BPD supplanted by PTSD but not clear about implications 4. Childhood trauma and childhood psychopathology 5. Resistance to looking at the experience of the traumatized child a. People don't want to know about children being abused 6. Do we recognize PTSD in children? (or is it misdiagnosed as AD/HD) a. Now we do, but we used to not to because it looks like ADHD in school settings b. PTSD kid is miserable but not the ADHD c. You need to diagnose properly because if you give the wrong medicine they will break down and end up in the hospital 7. Why does sexual trauma cause a particular pattern to occur? a. Kid who has been sexually abused is drawn to sexually acting out 8. Treatment difficulties a. You need to establish trust, but they don't even have that PSYCHODYNAMICS OF TRAUMA • Little has been written about how to treat the seriously traumatized child • Many clinicians are cautious in approaching sexual trauma in children • Judith Hermann – father-daughter incest o 3 stage theory  1. Safety and stability – are they doing okay with themselves  2. Recovery – things start to surface  3. Reconnection – what are you going to do with the stuff • May be missing a preliminary stage – “triage” • What does the child who was abused yesterday, look like today? • Sexual abuse damages concepts of self, other, and possibilities of human relationships Studies indicate 4 pivotal factors result from trauma: These factors are defenses against “annihilation anxiety” (1) repetition of abusive relational patterns (2) identification with the aggressor (3) self blame (4) seeking object contact through sexual/violent means * Child trauma survivor “runs from and runs back into” annihilation anxiety through repetition of relational patterns • They say weird stuff because they think that it is ok. Their view of the world has been distorted. But then people will give them negative responses and victim will be neglected once again DAVID FINKELHOR AND BROWNE • 4 traumogenic (trauma causing) factors: 1. traumatic sexualization - physical damage. Girls cannot reproduce and boy’s anal is torn apart 2. betrayal - betrayed by the person you trust the most, like a parent 3. powerlessness 4. stigmatization – realize something is wrong but people neglect them so they are suffering by themselves • These factors cause damage to the child • Also, sexual abuse occurs in the context of relationships that are disturbed & distorted • You don't know who you are • Alters views of relationships, self, & other(s) a.k.a. object relations units SANDOR FERENCZI • confusion of tongues – whatever children are given, is what they label as love o if you are grown in a healthy house then that’s what love is to you, but if you are abused and hit, then that’s what you know as love o thus the child comes to believe that he/she must “speak” the language of passion the perpetrator demands in order to get the “love” the child needs • the child is given sexual hate, not sexual love – they assume that the abuse was a consequence of their own behavior (self blame) 5 basic psychological dynamics • 1. Relentless reliving of abusive relationships o Either as victim or a perpetrator – when you’re a victim you feel weak, then you end up hurting other people because then you feel powerful. But you feel bad so its like a circle o Constantly inviting rejection and punishment in skillful and provocative ways o Relationships become impossible from this view • 2. Identification with aggressor o As a defense against internal feelings of fear/weakness o But by identifying with the aggressor, the child recognizes that he has chosen to become bad o Therefore, he is deserving of anger/judgements he feels towards the abuser and now must take it out on the self o Unshakable conviction of being the cause of the abuse, deserving the abuse, and being utterly bad  They believe that they were the reason for the blame o According to prior and Berliner, this is the most important treatment issue • 3. Perverse object contact o “perversion is the sexualization of the avoidance of intimacy” o Cruel paradox: the desire to love and be loved causes violence and perversion o Why sexual abuse is so damaging to the child’s sense of self and other: the child comes to believe that love destroys o Explains sado-masochism: central motive – finding human connectedness on the only terms offered  Paraphilia o this is Ferenczi’s “confusion of tongues” • 4. Self blame o - child comes to believe that s/he can evoke rejection or aggression from adults o that who s/he is, as a person, is sufficient to cause abandonment or cruelty from adults o child become proactive and attempts to provoke the “inevitable abandonment” rather than wait for “the other shoe to drop” o they cannot tolerate suffering powerlessly once again o spontaneous conviction that they (literally) contain a “bad self” that takes possession of them & therefore must be driven out or destroyed o “suicidal dilemma” (Winnicott’s Defender) – “bad self” makes the weak self stronger (defense against powerlessness) because without the “bad self”, there is no defense • 5. Possession o The abused: fears being abused again but also fears becoming abuser and hurting others o It is intolerable to live life as a victim: one is weak and powerless o But is equally intolerable to live life as a perpetrator for then one deserves all manner of punishment o Dilemma: either I am bad or I am nothing • Trauma is a relational disorder. Makes it hard for you to have relationships with people BASIC PATTERNS OF TRAUMA BONDING – Stockholm syndrome • Bowlby • Mary ainsworth • Happens because contradictions cannot resolved (how can someone who says they love me hurt me?) • The pain and memory of the abuse has not been integrated • Difficult to be angry at perpetrator because of fear of loss of object (emptiness and annihilation) o If you are too angry and turn them in then they will go to jail or something • These children will choose abuse over no conection TREATMENT • Must actively interpret: (1) relational dilemmas (2) the need to bring the “split off” part of the self (the “bad self”) into treatment • Gotta bring in the dark side (3) importance of articulating (and in some measure meeting) the child’s underlying relational needs • Most important part is working through “identification with the aggressor” (1) where human connection lies for the abused child (2) there is a perversion of the object relationship (3) confused self-blame vs. real blame -share experiences with a sympathetic and comforting person -teach them to not be a victim or perpetrator -Identify real relational needs (longing for love, care, and affection) which lie beneath aggressive/sexualized modes of behavior -repetition which allows for mastery -HPA axis is the fight or flight response thing. Hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal. -turns on in an emergency -ppl with trauma cant turn off the HPA axis, that's why they get flashbacks, and it feels like they are actually reliving the experience -therapist must be actively engaged and interpreting -limits of rogerian “mirroring” – so you cant be like “oh. Is that what happened? I see. That is horrible” in that monotone voice • You cant do anything to increase trauma so you have to be very careful • Resistance – when people resist your interpretation o So you just back off or they are gonna get retraumatized o If you are right, and the kids just weren’t ready to hear it, they will come to realize it • Hardest point in treatment is when the child asks therapist to abuse him • Have to get “close” in order to transform (corrective emotional experience) NEO FREUDIAN • Karen horney – psychology of women • People who contributed to the Freudian ideals but had significant disagreements ALFRED ADLER – social determinism o Social and familial factors o Social interests and positive aspect of man  Desires to help people out, the things you do for others o Importance of adult education  Opened his own school o Importance of “sibling order”  It can determine how you see your relationships  If you are the first child or the last child it can have a big difference o 3 problem areas of life  Sex and marriage  School and occupation  Family and social nature • Basic concepts o 1. Fictional finalism – live by assumptions that cant be proven. But they make us feel like theres a right way to do something, so they will influence our behavior  “Honesty is the best policy” o Inferiority feelings and compensations – when they have inferiority feelings, they try to compensate for that somehow  Anything that makes you feel less than. You thought you had mad skills yo, but then u realize u sucked  The inferiority feeling drives you to be better, like the girl who had asthma that couldn't exercise but then gave her the drive to become an Olympian  If we are incomplete, then we will try to compensate for it by striving for superiority o Striving for superiority  Innate drive to be aggressive, to be powerful and masterful at something  Pulled by our goal to be superior o Social interest  Motivated by social needs  When we work together, we can form a better unit of society. And the best way is education. Nobody can take education away from you  We have to have social interest, in life, in people, like helping people  Altruism – help people out without giving too much of yourself o Style of life  Unique, like fingerprints, so everyone has a unique style of life  Built on personality, skills, etc. some ppl will build on more artistic or athletic style of life  He thinks that your style of life wont change in later years, it will stick with you  Neurosis caused by If you have a mistaken style of life o Creative self • Gave Freudian theory the social aspect it needed • Concept of the “creative self” is highly personalized, subjective and optimistic • Focused on the uniqueness of each personality and less emphasis on sexual interests • Consciousness is the center of personality CARL JUNG – analytic psychology and collective un
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