PS251, Lec 2, Final 11/25/2013
One bad experience associated to a stimuli can lead to avoiding that stimulus or any similar ones, called
Instrumental conditioning: learning with a purpose. Called it the law of effects, or trial and error
learning. You engage in a number of different trials, any successful or positive behavior gets repeated,
anything that doesn’t lead to good results is avoided.
There are noncontingent reinforcers: Probably there’s no correlation between something and
something else, but you think there is because of good results. Ex. every time I’m in the basement, my
sports team wins. They would’ve won anyways. This is due to trail and error learning. Your mind relates
things together. Thorndike gave us this idea.
How behaviors are stampedin is instrumental conditioning. This is the missing link between classical and
operant conditioning. Gave the ABC’s of behaviorism:
A: antecedent. Classical conditioning.
C: consequence. Both behavior and consequences are operant conditioning.
This led to Skinner coming up with operant conditioning.
What comes before and what comes after both affect your behavior.
Consequences and antecedents. Thorndike didn’t distinguish between the two.
talked about learned helplessness. Did another set of studies. When the dogs couldn’t escape in the
beginning, they wouldn’t escape even if they were put into an environment where they could escape. Sat in
silence and took the electric shock without trying to escape. Learned helplessness is a Model of