PS251, Lec 2, Final.docx

4 Pages

Psychological & Brain Sciences
Course Code
CAS PS 251
David Shim

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PS251, Lec 2, Final 11/25/2013 One bad experience associated to a stimuli can lead to avoiding that stimulus or any similar ones, called  generalization.  Thorndike:  Instrumental conditioning: learning with a purpose. Called it the law of effects, or trial and error  learning. You engage in a number of different trials, any successful or positive behavior gets repeated,  anything that doesn’t lead to good results is avoided.  There are non­contingent reinforcers: Probably there’s no correlation between something and  something else, but you think there is because of good results. Ex. every time I’m in the basement, my  sports team wins. They would’ve won anyways. This is due to trail and error learning. Your mind relates  things together. Thorndike gave us this idea.  How behaviors are stamped­in is instrumental conditioning. This is the missing link between classical and  operant conditioning. Gave the ABC’s of behaviorism:  A: antecedent. Classical conditioning.  B: behavior.  C: consequence. Both behavior and consequences are operant conditioning.  This led to Skinner coming up with operant conditioning.  What comes before and what comes after both affect your behavior.  Consequences and antecedents. Thorndike didn’t distinguish between the two.  Martin Seligman:  talked about learned helplessness. Did another set of studies. When the dogs couldn’t escape in the  beginning, they wouldn’t escape even if they were put into an environment where they could escape. Sat in  silence and took the electric shock without trying to escape. Learned helplessness is a Model of 
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