PS251, Lec 4, Final: 12/04/2013
Albert Ellis and Rational Emotive Therapy:
Rational Emotive Therapy: There are 3 musts that hold us back: I must do well, You must treat me
well, and the world must be easy. Consequences of this negative thinking.
Not only are the behaviors important but the thoughts and feelings go together (schema).
Behaviorism psychologists: Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Skinner
learned through experience with the environment
directly observable and measurable (operational definition according to Skinner)
RET – Ellis (forerunner to CBT)
CBT – Beck, Meichenbaum, Linehan
Social Cognitive/Learning Bandura
Past is not as important as present “cognitions”
“Simple exclamatory sentences (a.k.a. “self talk”) if irrational, results in negative feelings
External event A occurs – internal statement B will occur (realm of CBT)
EX: set up a scenario – get to source of irrational thoughts
Precursor to CBT, DBT (dialectic – irreverence)
List of cognitive distortion: called the “should” distortion. The minute you use the word should, you
imply failure. Ex. I must drink V8 means I fail at eating veggies.
Thoughts have emotional consequences.
Dialectic: Not taking everything so seriously.
Believe an internal statement will automatically happen. Realm of CBT. No matter how much insight the patient has, rarely has an effect on behavior.
If you can help people challenge their irrational thoughts, they feel better.
1. Potential to be rational as well as irrational. Need to bring rational side to counter irrational thoughts.
2. Thinking irrationally is frequently exacerbated by the culture and the family group. Some people don’t talk
about their problems. Can make irrationality worse.
3. Humans tend to perceive, think, emote, and behave simultaneously. Make you jump to wrong
4. Focus of treatment is highly cognitive, activedirective, HW assigning, & disciplineoriented. You grow
from painful experiences.
5. A warm relationship between counselor &counselee is not a necessary or sufficient condition for effective
personality change. Remember story of guy who wanted to marry everyone he had a relationship with.
6. Multimodal approach: to assessment and treatment: we have to do a lot of behavioral techniques
and suggestions, roleplaying to help treat the behavior.
7. Virtually all serious emotional problems directly stem from mag