PS251, Lec 5, Final: 12/06/2013
10 Cognitive Disorders: Handout online
Now moving on to Humanistic Approaches:
Used the word nonconscious to refer to unconscious to avoid relating it to Freud’s unconscious.
• Third “school” of personality: a lot of their techniques don’t even practice humanistic ideas.
• Reaction against the dogmatic thinking of both the psychoanalysts & behaviorists (Freud and Skinner):
the humanistic approach was in between.
• Believed that they had too narrow a view, they missed the “human element” such as creativity,
compassion, will power, etc.
• Contemporary known as “mindfulness”
• Includes Humanistic (Maslow), Phenomonological (Rogers), Existentialism (Perls), and others (Reality
Therapy, Interactional Theory, etc.)
Mostly integrated into other schools of clinical practice
1. Abraham Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs & Self Actualization
2. Carl Rogers – Phenomenological Psychology, ClientCentered Approach, & Unconditional Positive
3. Fritz Perls – Gestalt Therapy
*”Spiritual” father of American Humanism (antireligious but spiritual nonetheless, believed there was a
distinction between religion and spirituality)
*Humanistic – What is important is how individuals achieve their own selfhood (born with
potential) & actualize their human potentialities. Living up to your potential.
*Emphasis: Emphasized human beings needs. positive human motives (self actualization) &
positive personal events (peak experiences).
*We must satisfy lowerorder needs before one can reach the higherorder
established and set up a “Hierarchy of Needs” with selfactualization & peak experiences at the
highest levels (defined as happy, satisfied with own life & existence)