Psych Final Review:
1. In classical conditioning, what is learning like?
Involuntary, responses reflexes. Unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned
response > UCS +CS > UCR
Make associations between unconditioned stimulus and conditioned
stimulus to make a response.
2. What did Watsonnduiltup on this idea by?
He talked about 2 order conditioning and phobias can be explained by
2 order conditioning. Generalization of a stimulus. Anything associated
with the UCS elicits the same UCR. If you have a phobia of a certain
stimulus, everything similar creates the same phobia.
Little Albert was curious and interacted with the rabbit at first. UCR. UCS
loud noise. Phobias can be explained by Pavlovian conditioning principles
and 2 order conditioning to explain some responses that people make.
Watson and Pavlov were both classical conditioning.
3. Thorndike: What was his idea about learning?
Instrumental conditioning. Modify behavior through trial and error
learning. As the number of trials increase, the strength of incorrect responses
gradually weakens and the correct response grows in strength.
4. Skinner’s idea is operant conditioning. Modifying behavior based on
reinforcements: positive and negative that increase a behavior, and
punishment giving something that decreases a behavior.
5. Shaping is when behavior is increased by reinforcement.
6. What are the different schedules of reinforcement?
Graph in lecture slides.
a. Ratio: # of times a behavior happens. Every certain number a behavior
occurs, you get a fixed amount of reinforcements.
Fixed: Depends on the # of times a behavior happens.
Varied: Most effective in increasing behavior.
b. Interval: Time the behavior occurs, you get a fixed amount of
Fixed: Least effective in increasing behavior.
Interval: variable amount of reinforcement.
7. Behaviorists: Albert Ellis?
Rational Motive Therapy: Directive. Therapist works directly with the
client and gives instructions in order to change thinking process. Not in tune
with reality, irrational thinking. Main reason for psychological disorders is
irrational thinking. Ellis used different methods to work with clients. Multi
modal approaches. 7. Nondirective therapy: doesn’t intervene with anything; Just
encourage selfactualization and the wholeness of the self.
Humanistic approaches use this.
8. List of cognitive distortions:
Look at them and know descriptions. Be able to identify from a scenario or a
9. What are the main sources that contribute to irrational thinking?
Family, culture, society and expectations and pressure from society. Setting
up ideals that can’t be achieved. Perfect picture of who you want to be and
not being sensitive to individual capabilities.
10. 3 Different bases of behavior:
Psychological: Needlessly upsetting yourself by irrational thinking.
Physiological bases: we’re born to do something over something else.
Naturally inclined to do something over something else.
Social: seeking approval of others and worrying what they think of you.
When things are more difficult you worry excessively about approval of
11. What did Ellis say about insight?
Doesn’t lead to personality or behavior change. No matter how much insight
and awareness you have of your problems, if you don’t change irrational
thinking you can’t change behaviors.
12. Humanistic Approaches: Selfactualization was their common aim.
People are split into