Study Guides (248,246)
United States (123,302)
CGS SS 101 (22)

SS 101 Final Exam Notes

21 Pages
Unlock Document

Social Sciences
CGS SS 101
Leslie Kriebel

The Early Modern Period (1517 – 1789) Review Reformation Pre-reformation there was a confederation with different styles of government Peace ofAugsburg 1555; two faiths, one king Thirty years’ war and its impact Divine rights of kings Absolutism Tolerance policies as necessity Mercantilism Protestant reformation 1517 – 95 theses nailed to church at wittenberg Relation between individual believer and god is direct Salvation by faith alone Bible is source of revelation – not only interpreted by the Pope All rituals and rules of church must have a basis in the bible Who to follow and why? Only one who carries “our” spiritual sword is rooted in God’s law, i.e. has the right to rule s. Emporer Ferdinand presided over the Peace atAugsburg (1555) which allowed two Christian faiths He divides rule between himself (temporal) and other princes (spiritual) Meaning he had control over armies and politics of the domain.And the prince determines your religion. Kings could unite people around faith because they had different beliefs.And they began to rally people behind nations and kings. Political Centralization • Modernization 7 o Beginings of a Global economy o Muslim power negativey affected trade o Europeans had a shortage of metals o Plague/wars slowed economic activity o These problems were eleviated by the bourgeoisie was willing to help because they wanted to expand their monarchies, spread Christianity and for renaissance humanism o Portugal and Spain were the first to expand o Isabel and Ferdinand gave Christopher Columbus money for three ships  This time was called theAge of Discoveries o Spains Century  Charles V of Habsburg (1516-1556)  Obtained spain,Austria, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, however very little money went to the royal treasury because of merchants and other costs. – the wealth bought foreign goods and a lot of Spain’s money went to the military.  Once spain acquired money they paid back investors o There was an increase in economic specialization and a decrease in self-sufficiency o The Putting Out system: means of subcontracting where a entreapenuer uses capital and investion to buy raw goods, and gives them to laborers to work with and then sells the products to merchants. The labor is done in people’s homes. o Max Weber  protestant ethic: hardwork, savings, integrity, confidence – led to the new economic system • The Leviathon, Hobbes o compares a commonwealth to a human body Thirty Years’ War (1618 – 1648) – fought in Germany o Fought about power not just religion o Emergence of grand alliances o Germany loses half of it’s population and there are lasting environmental effects In Prague, preists are thrown out the window which began the war 1. Bohemian (1618 – 1625) (Czech republic) Bohemians throuw out Ferdinand, elect new king (later reversed) Spanish support of Ferdinand givers spain foothold in Germany 2. Danish (1625 – 1629) Danish king wants territory to give to son so attacks Germany Danes beatan back Wallenstein invades Denmark 3. Swedish (1630 – 1635) Richelieu supports king od Sweden to invade germany 4. Swedish-French (1635 – 1648) international struggle on German soil: Spanish aginst Dutch, French & Swedish and Dutch against Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs. Ended by the Peace of Westphalia After the war there was a stalemate and people just wanted stability and peace. Aperiod of tolerance begins with secular policies Impact of the war Balance of powers  alliances to achieve peace Expanded tax systems and administration Increased size and effectiveness of permanent standing armies New military technology: gunpowder weapons, fortification and ships Military expenditures were 25% to 80% of national budget Peace of Westphalia 1648: secular policies pursued by governments Germany reverts back to feudal decentralization – end of Holy Roman Empire More impacts – military Centralizing administrations – bypassing noblilty, using informants Elimination other power competition – suppressing Protesants or other sects; dosecting the Catholic clergy Gaining control of the economy – taxation is bureaucratized, use of taxfarmers, tariffs Hiring specialists (educated bourgeoisie) to build rational bureaucracy with rules and laws The bourgeoisie have had years of training to be members of the bureaucracy They adopt noble titles Examples Cardinal Richelieu in France Elizabeth I in England What is the source of power and legitimacy> England Henry VIII (1509) – ruled (Anglican) church as well as government Parliament wants more control and veto power based on 1215 Magna Carta Elizabeth I (1558) – doesn’t execute heretics anymore, only traitors to the nation. Stuart England • Avoided the 30 years war • House of Commons – composed of wealthy people “landed gentry” • Disagreements led to the English Civil War was between Parliament and Charles I (1641-1649) • Oliver Cromwell took the leadership role • Hobbes published the Leviathon- strong central government France Henry IV (1589) – converts from Protestantism to Catholicism.Advocates policies of tolerance Louis XIII (1610) – hired Cardinal Richelieu (1624) who recognized government through centralization. He obtained a lot of power and established a hierarchical bureaucratic authority. Created a network of spies Louis XIV (1661) – “I am the state”. Increased taxes to support a bigger army. Moved the palace to Versailles Louis XVI (1774) – executed on the guillotine during the French Revolution Divine Right of Kings Power and authority derive from God Kings have the :right: to rule as long as they follow tradition and God Set of objective laws governs all No people or institutions are above the Kings Temporal and spiritual ruler – all in one Monarchs are above the law Was very stable Absolutism Used by monarchs to increase their power -- is a secular political form of government featuring a concentration of power extending downward from a monarch and broadly legitimized by religious and historical tradition Characterized by Military: permanent standing armies Government: permanent bureaucracy of skilled technocracts, centralized political authroty, codified laws Economy: national taxation, rationalized tax collection, unified command economy, import tariffs. Bullionism: Wealth begins to be measured by the amount of gold and silver was actually in the treasuries Mercantilism (the economic system of absolutism) Acommand-oriented economic system that is controlled by centralized political authority Acollection of policies, laws and regulations that were developed by absolute monarchies to maximize the amount of wealth in a kingdom Represents move toward command economy so undermined traditional economy Create fortunes for bourgeoisie Created large state-run trading corporations, monopolies via royal license Exploration and colonies helped accumulation and investment of capital Economy controlled by a centralized political authority so it maximized economy of scale The King created the East India Trading company and then forced the colonies inAmerica and other places to buy solely fro them Allowed for a strong standing army Tax loopholes caused the peasants to be heavily taxed Mercantialism required the government to support industry with tariffs Bullionism (bullion: gold of silver in bulk before coining) monarchs forbade colonial subjects from buying foreign goods the kings fifth – the king’s share of any gold that entered the nation monarchs prevented colonies from production many nedded commodities so forcing them to buy from home country at monopoly prices Thomas Hobbes State of Nature The Leviathan His temporal sword is over castls, crown, cannon, weapons Spiritual power ofer churches, excommunication, schools The Leviathon, by Hobbes - it is better to give up some rights for safety and stability In the state of nature it would be a war against all and therefore we need one powerful ruler by voting and agreeing When people are equal they are constantly insecure There can be no development during was Rulers can be over throne by wit Men fight for 3 reasons: competition, diffidence and glory ‘jus naturale’ – liberty each man has to defend himself. Liberty is the absence of impedimnts ‘lex naturalis’ – law of nature: use of reason to self preserve we need the rule of a sword for us to do what we say we will inspired by Galileo Laws: 1. Seek peace and follow it; 2. Defend oneself by any means Processes of Modernization  Industrialization  Technological development  Secularization  Rationalization – legal, economy military  Urbanization  Specialization – economy and class  Individualization  Centralization of power and authority  Bureaucratization Enlightenment and Social Contracts Scientific Revolution Challenging the epistomolgy (revelation, authority) of the Catholic Church Deism: a natural benevolent source created the world Emphasizing use of our senses (empiricism) to understand our world… Copernicus (1473 – 1543) – mathematically posted a helio-centric universe Kepler (1751 – 1630) – planets move not in circles but ellipses Galileo (1564 – 1642) – laws describing movement of bodies on earth Law of Inertia Objects once set in motion will always stay in motion unless acted upon byan external force (friction) or they meet with an obstacle Newton (1643 – 1727)- law of universal gravitation All of these theorists fought against the Catholic church Developing theories and tools to test our observations… Telescope Mathematics Taking risks to test theories – persecution by the church Laws and search for certainty Goals of Enlightenment thinkers There must be discoverable natural laws that govern the way society works Divine Law – any law in the opinion of believers comes from the will of god Natural Law – law based on universally accepted moral principles, law derived from nature and reason Positive Law – statutory man-made law As the certainty and legitimacy declines, the certainty of provable laws rise Determinism  for each event tere are laws, which if known, could have predicted the event – given sufficient prior info about the conditions of those events Prediction based on laws can help us to improve society Essentially frees us as we no longer feel the stress of predeterminitation. Similar to the effect of free-will Age of Reason,Age of Elegance France Louis XIV – longest rule (1643 – 1715) High culture and symbolism, classical elegance, sun king Ascenfance of French as international languafe Populare expansion of literary marketplace Developed bureaucracies, transferred to mercantilism Salons and debates – the secularization of thought Government based on rational design France has reps in all the courts of Europe England Oliver Cromwell – lord protector Civil War (1640s & 1650s) Regicide of Charles I (1649) – during battle Cromwell dies 1658 He was not well liked by the people Puritan ideology Restoration (1660) – Charles II (Charles I son) comes to power and England is returned to the kingship Glorious Revolution (1688), William and Mary Locke’s Second Treatise (1689) argued Hobbes and said the separation og monarchy and elected legislature was necessary Freedom of the Press (1693) Enlightenment Man Is… Prudent Cautsions Practical Useful Citizen Averse to pure speculation Link between European andA
More Less

Related notes for CGS SS 101

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.