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SO 100 Midterm Study Guide.docx

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Boston University
CAS SO 100
Eliana Stratico

Midterm Study Guide Taylor Weissbratten Weeks 1 and 2 Study Guide WEEK ONE: Who We Are and Why We Are Here Tues Sept 6: The Sociology of BU • Malcolm Gladwell, 2005. “Getting In” The New Yorker. o Selection effect vs. treatment effect  Selection – the people going to elite schools are elite to begin with  Treatment – the elite schools make the people going there elite Thurs Sept 8: The Sociological Imagination • C. Wright Mills, 1959. “The Promise.” Excerpt from The Sociological Imagination, pp. 1 – 4. o Sociological Imagination  Connects personal troubles of individuals to publish issues of structure (individual vs. mass)  If we can’t connect then we feel sense of unease  Sociologies try to connect the personal and the public to see a larger social construct/outward force that causes the issue. Sociologists look outward o Task for sociologists is to gauge your own fate within your period – how do the social institutions and constructions of your time period shape you? SOCIOLOGY o Study of human society  people to people interactions o Interactions between individual action and social structures o Cultural norms o Big 3: Gender, Race, Class • Social construction o Socially produced beliefs, ideas, ways of organizing the world. Products of human effort & social interaction o Can identify something as a social construction by: Does it change over time? Does it vary over place? • Social Institution o Social units in societies that direct organized social activities. Provide rules, roles, and relationships set up to meet human needs and direct human behavior. Establish social expectations for the future o Ex. School, state, religion, family, culture, race, BU o Not just about the people who make up the institution, because when those people leave the institution stays… The name, physical place, people don’t make up everything for an institution 1 • Social Structure o Enduring patterns in human behavior o Ex. Class, gender, expectations and stereotypes around race, broad conceptual positions in the social order o The social contexts of our lives are not random assortments of events. They are structured, or patterned, in enduring ways. WEEK TWO: Studying the Social Tues Sept 13: Methods • Conley, Ch. 2, Methods • 3 levels of analysis o Microanalysis – immediate social interaction – small scale o Mesoanalysis – middle level analysis o Macroanalysis – large scale • Correlation vs. Causality o Causality: Change in x  Change in y o Correlation: Association between 2 variables o Spurious relationship: underlying variable causing both variables to grow at the same time o Reverse Causality: you think you understand the causal direction but it’s actually the opposite way… • Quantitative o Collecting data, numerical, draws its conclusions from statistics o Sampling  Take a sample of a population, see a trend, make generalizations to larger population • Positivist o Research philosophy that looks for patterns in the social world o The social world can be known by certain predictable relationships o Comes out of hard sciences approach (natural laws governing world) • Deductive: Theory  Data • Qualitative o Interviews, in depth non-numerical understanding of a population • Interpretivist o People make the world around them based on what they see o Don’t make as much generalizations and similarities as positivist b/c aren’t hard and fast rules • Inductive: Data  Theory Midterm Study Guide Taylor Weissbratten Thurs Sept 15: Ethics case: Testing Authority • Film, Obedience by Stanley Milgram (1965) o Milgrim Experiment o Do benefits compensate for risks? o Ethical problems Week 3 - Socialization Readings • Talking to Women o Man yelling to women on the street (Entanglements)  On a successful sidewalk, if something happens to you, others will come to your aid  Conversation Analysis • Shows that compliments and questions normally get responses • The women make clear to the men that they do not want to talk, the cues are ignored (even 3/10’s of a second can be a cue that a there is a conversational problem o Unreciprocated Closings o The men do not understand the main social cues in the conversations and have not been socialized to understand these actions as wrong • The Presentation of Self – Erving Goffman o Information about an individual helps to define a situation, enabling other sot know in advance what he will expect of them and what they may expect of him  If unacquainted with the individual, observers can get clues form their conduct and appearance which allows them to apply their previous experience with individuals roughly similar to the one before them or, more important, to apply untested stereotypes 3 o Impressions  The other’s impression  First impressions (getting off on the right foot)  Defensive and protective practices comprise the techniques employed to safeguard the impression fostered by an individual during his presence before others • Anybody’s Son Will Do (Gwynne Dyer) o Young man are not natural soldiers any more than they're natural carpenters or accountants, but it's a trade that almost anybody can learn. Soldiering takes up a much bigger part of your life than most jobs, but it doesn't take a special kind of person. Anybody's son will do. o How young men become psychologically engineered to kill or die on command  Modern techniques for creating soldiers are refined, dehumanizing and universal o The US Military wants to make recruits who will be reeducated, brainwashed – but see it as manly, patriotic, and heroic o Basic training  Involves a brief but intense period of indoctrination  It works by applying enormous physical and mental pressure to men who have been isolated from their normal civilian environment and placed in one where the only right way to think and behave is the way the Marine Corps wants them to  The recruits' total identification with the other members of their unit is the most important lesson of all, and everything possible is done to foster it. They spend almost every waking moment together-a recruit alone is an anomaly to be looked into at once-and during most of that time they are enduring shared hardships. They also undergo collective punishments Midterm Study Guide Taylor Weissbratten Notes Introduction to Socialization • socialization: process by which people learn their norms, values, beliefs of society • learning how to function in society • without human interaction, our capacity to think gets reduced • study of babies in different kinds of institutions • solitary confinement is thought to be cruel and unusual punishment by psychologists 1compared nursery and orphanage 2nursery: infants were mixed with attendants and visitors; cribs had bars; biggest problem was spreading of the common cold 3orphanage: babies were separated from staff; only human contact when staff fed or changed them; cribs didn’t have bars - only metal bar with sheet over them 4babies in orphanages lacked social stimulations, physical and emotional stability, 40% died • with no human contact, prisoners get depressed, paranoid, have hallucinations, panic attacks etc • symbolic interactionism: shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations to people’s actions • micro-sociology: how individuals relate to one another, interactions between subtle actions and relations that occur within people • social construction of reality: something that’s meaningful, valuable and real when society tells us it is • George Herbert Mead - social philosopher for micro-sociology • infants all know the concept of “I” - cannot see beyond rudimentary stage of individual self 1don’t understand that many people can be inconvenienced 2can only imitate other people • next stage is “me” - self can exist as an object that other people see 1infant starts to imagine that other people can see him/her 2understand roles of mommy/daddy/sibling - can play house 3can distinguish between two or three people • last, they understand “other” - there are people in the world that you might not have met 1able to understand consideration for others / feel empathy 2able to take multiple roles, see many players/roles and anticipate their actions • role of generalized other - can anticipate that there are certain roles and people in the world that might hold you accountable for your own behavior • tacit knowledge: knowledge that is not explicit (kicking a soccer ball) • people with Aspergers or certain forms of autism cannot understand how different roles of generalized people exist 5 • total institution: every single facet of day to day life is regimented/controlled, requires socialization Role Theory - Robert Merton • ascribed status - one that you were born into 1society has assigned it to you (race, gender, age) 2no regard with talents, traits, merits • achieved status - one that you obtain over time 1have the ability to change by virtue of your own actions 2athlete, student, etc • role - duties of someone who holds particular status • gender role theory - came about in 1950s, dictates how each gender should act 1Male: breadwinner, strong… 2Female: nurturing, caregiver, home maker… • role strain - somebody in a single status has conflicts among their roles (two roles they must fulfill) • role conflict - two conflicting statuses (role of friend/roommate, Bill Clinton as womanizer/president) 1people with role conflict should compartmentalize - split up your duties 2hierarchize - make one role more important than the other (prioritize) • if we change our ascribed status, it tends to not go over well, not socially acceptable Dramaturgical Theory - Erving Goffman • study of drama, theatre, acting • we are all actors performing on a stage “trying to get the audience to believe us” • we put our best face forward • face: esteem that other people hold you in, how people see you • impression management - constantly trying to manage how other people perceive us 1careful about which parts of ourselves we show to which audiences 2 ex: waitress being nice to customers but shit talking them when they go back to the kitchen • tactful blindness - trying to help someone who has “lost face” 1defensive corrective practice: make a comment, make it known you are aware of it 2protective corrective practice: your employing tact, helping peer save face (look the other way) 3examples: someone having spinach in their teeth when you’re on a date • working consensus: we’re all on the same page with the definition of the situation Ethnomethodology - Harold Garfinkle • ethno (the people) + method + ology (study of) - study of people’s methods • context matters Midterm Study Guide Taylor Weissbratten 1“that’s sick” can have two meanings (cool, gross); “I’ll kill you” can be literal, can involve lover 2people construct meanings by drawing on social context • have flexibility built into our interactions 1people do not have definite responses to the questions we ask 2Amelia Bedilia - takes things very literally (put the lights out - she puts them outside) • conversation analysis - records people as they speak/interact with one another 1goes back and analyzes it audibly and visually 2when do people say what and how, what are the inflections in their voice 3not just what you say, how you say it 4turn-taking - how do you know when to stop talking and give someone else a chance (head nod) • dimming the lights - it is socially acceptable to ignore people walking by 1don’t stare people down in the hallway or sit down next to someone and start staring at them Lecture #6, September 22 Culture: set of beliefs, traditions, practices • sum of total categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs, behaviors and practices • not the natural environment around us • passes from one generation to the next • gives us predictability and normalcy • example: language 2Ethnocentrism: use of one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies generally leading to negative evaluation • thinking your society does it “the right way” • example: 15th century exploration - Europeans traveling to other countries would arrive on shores and see natives as not developed (lacking culture, being close to nature, need civilization) Talking to Women - Mitchell Dunier • conversation analysis - tape recorder in pocket then broke down length of pauses, voice inflections • interactional vandalism: people subvert the tacit conversations of everyday talk • women were left feeling bad and unsettled about being rude to a stranger • women have fear of getting in these conversations with men, feel there is a gender disadvantage • social structure: enduring patterns of human behavior 1social contexts are not a random assortment of events, they are structured or patterned 7 2race, class, gender are interlocking positions • structuration (Anthony Giddens, 1984): two way process by which we shape our social world through individual action and by which we are reshaped by society Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism • how is the modern world so different from traditional society • modern world - follow elected leaders; tradition world - do things the way they’ve always been done • visits America in 1904 (flourishing capitalist society) • personal duty to increase wealth • utilitarianism of values - virtues are only virtuous only if they are useful • predestination: few in the world were chosen by god, picked by grace for salvation • predestination is incredibly anxious - a lot of anxiety about whether you will go to heaven Chapter 4: Socialization Vocabulary Socialization – the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society Self – the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person I – one’s sense of agency, action, or power Me – the self as perceived as an object by the “I”; as the self as one imagines others perceive one Other – someone or something outside of oneself Generalized Other – an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings, regardless of whether we’ve encountered those people or places before Resocialization – the process by which one’s sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered, often deliberately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution Total institution – an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day to day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same authority Status – a recognizable social position that an individual occupies Midterm Study Guide Taylor Weissbratten Role – the duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status Role Strain – the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status Role Conflict – the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses Ascribed Status – a status into which one is born; involuntary status Achieved status – a status into which one enters; voluntary status Master status – one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others Dramaturgical Theory – the view of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets Ethnomethodology – the methods of the people, this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social other Week 5 – Deviance Social Deviance: any transgression of socially established norms ­ Informal deviance: minor violations o Ex: picking your nose – no large punishment, you just sense that something is wrong ­ Formal deviance: violation of laws enacted by society  subject to punishment o Ex: crime ­ Social deviance is always subject to change – social norms and rules are fluid ­ Deviance always constant in society, but it evolves depending on context – culture and historical period ­ Deviants need to be created o Deviance is socially constructed o Consider nature vs. nurture  What qualities are we born with? Which ones are created? ­ Deviance itself is a product of social interactions ­ Lucifer effect: the point in time when an ordinary, normal person first crosses the boundary between good and evil to engage in an evil action. o Individuals under high stress and uncertainty o Deviance is made normal o Ex: Abu Ghraibe 9 Functionalist Approach to Deviance and Social Control – Emile Durkheim ­ A functionalist approach explains the existence of social phenomena by the functions they perform o Each part of society has a part in establishing the state – organization ­ Social cohesion: the way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along on a day-to-day basis o Mechanical solidarity: social cohesion based on sameness  Pre-modern society  Cohesion stems from reliable similarity of parts  Low division of labor  Punishment: collective punishment for deviance o Organic solidarity: social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts  Modern society  Each part is different, but helps the whole  High division of labor: labor specialization  increase in cohesion  Punishment: focus on individual – try to “rehabilitate” or transform an individual ­ Commit acts of deviance  offend collective conscience o Collective conscience: set of social norms  Refers to the shared beliefs and values (ways of thinking and knowing), the social force that feels like it’s outside every individual  Acts on and shapes our behavior  Produced by all of us together (collectively)  Social force that operates as a moral order o Holds society together and produces social solidarity – without collective conscience, the world would be in chaos o Punishment: social realignment ­ Crime has a function in society: contributes to collective conscience of society o Committing a crime offends the collective conscience o Prevents anomie – gives us a sense of what our norms are  Without norms, we would experience limitlessness – dangerous  There need to be limits for us so we’re not “floating” in society ­ Social control: set of mechanisms that makes us follow the rules in society – creates normative compliance o Formal social sanctions: rules or laws prohibiting deviant criminal behavior o Informal social sanctions: unexpressed by widely known rules of group membership – unwritten/unspoken rules of social life Midterm Study Guide Taylor Weissbratten  Process of socialization helps us learn these rules o We are simultaneously enforcing rules and having them enforced upon us ­ Normative Theory of Suicide o Suicide: an instance of social deviance – rooted in larger social pattern o Durkheim’s hypothesis: difference in social norms determines different suicide rates  You are more or less likely to commit suicide in different social groups  Low rate of suicide: integrated into community with reasonable set of rules o Social integration: how well you are integrated into your community o Social regulation: how many rules guide your life and
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