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SO100 Final

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CAS SO 100
Eliana Stratico

Sociology Final Study Guide Taylor Weissbratten Who We Are and Why We Are Here • Sociological imagination: the ability to connect the most basic intimate aspects of an individual’s life to seemingly impersonal and remote historic forces; public o Is what we take to be natural actually natural? • Social institution: a group of social positions, connected by social relations, performing a social role • Social construction: socially produced beliefs, ideas, ways of organizing the world; products of human effort and interaction • Social structure: enduring patterns in human behavior Studying the Social • Positivism o Research philosophy that looks for patterns in the social world o The social world can be known by certain predictable relationships o Comes out of hard sciences approach of natural laws governing the world o QUANTITATIVE • Interpretivist o People make the world around them based on what they see o Don’t make as much generalizations and similarities as positivists because they aren’t hard and fast rules o Meaning attached to behaviors o QUALITATIVE • Participant Observation o Method that seeks to observe social actions in practice • Stanley Milgram case The Social Self • Socialization: process by which you learn how to become a functioning member of society • Development of the Self and the Other o Self: individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person; emerges from ability to assume the point of view of others and imagine how they see us o I: one’s sense of action or power o Me: the self as one imagines others perceive it • Theory of social behavior: knowing how others are likely going to react to different situations; learned to anticipate behaviors in context of certain situations • Generalized other: internalized sense of the generalized order as we gather new info about norms and expectations • Agents of socialization o Families, school, peers, media, total institutions • Robert Merton’s Role Theory o Status: social position that an individual occupies o Roles: duties and behaviors associated with a status o Role strain: incompatibility among roles in a single status o Role conflict: tensions between competing demands of two or more roles from different statuses o Status set: all the statuses you have at any given time o Ascribed status: one you were born into o Achieved status: status which one enters into voluntarily • Symbolic interactionism: suggests that we interact with others using words and behaviors that have symbolic meanings o Meanings are the products of social interaction in human society • Dramaturgical Theory: Erving Goffman o Life is essentially a play with a moral of sorts; impression management o Struggling to make a good impression on our audience o Face: esteem in which an individual is held by others o Civic inattention: don’t interact with someone until an open time • Ethnomethodology o Harold Garfinkel o Sent students out to see what happened when they breached social norms o study of people’s methods • Ethnocentrism o Use of one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies generally leading to negative evaluation o Thinking your society does it the right way Social Structure and Culture • Social groups • George Simmel o Said that number of people in a group helps determine the form of the social relations that take place • Dyads, triads • Small group: characterized by face to face interaction, one center of attention at any time, lack of formal arrangement of roles • Large group: status differentiation and presence of formal structure • Embeddedness: the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths in a social network; more embedded a tie is the stronger it is • Tie: content of a relationship; explains it • Strength of weak ties: often relatively weak ties can turn out to be valuable because they yield new information; useful in job searches • Structural hole: gap between network clusters or even two individuals • Social capital: information, knowledge of people and things, connections that help people enter, gain power in, or leverage social networks Deviance • Social deviance: any transgression of socially established norms • Social cohesion: the way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along on a daily basis • Lucifer Effect: the point in time when an ordinary, normal person first crosses the boundary between good and evil to engage in an evil action o Abu Ghraibe; individuals under high stress and uncertainty • Functionalist Approach to Deviance; Durkheim o Social cohesion: the way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along on a day to day basis o Explains the existence of social phenomena by the functions they perform o Mechanical solidarity: social cohesion based on sameness o Organic solidarity: social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts; modern society; parts are different which increases cohesion; punishment involves rehabilitating the individual • Collective conscience o Set of social norms; holds society together and produces social solidarity • When individuals commit acts of deviance they offend the collective conscience and society must then fix this through social realignment • Crimes can contribute to collective conscience of society • Social control: set of mechanisms that makes us follow the rules in society o Formal and informal social sanctions • Normative Theory of Suicide o Social integration: refers to the degree to which you are integrated into your social group or community o Social regulation: refers to how many rules guide your life on a day to day basis o To be at low risk for suicide one needs to be somewhere in the middle; integrated into your community with a reasonable set of guidelines to construct your life o Egoistic suicide: occurs when one is not well integrated into a social group; no one to give life meaning; feel hopeless; want something to endure after our death o Altruistic suicide: occurs when one experiences too much social integration; the person feels meaningless aside from a group’s recognition; group dominates individual’s life; Hindu women required to throw selves on husband’s fire o Learned helplessness: depressed outlook in which sufferers lack the will to take action to improve their lives o Anomie: a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; not enough social regulation o Anomic suicide: resulting from lack of social regulation; unpredictability of life can be unhealthy; produces anxiety o Fatalistic suicide: occurs when a person experiences too much social regulation; doing the same thing every day and have nothing to look forward to; women’s roles in the 1950’s • Suicide in religious groups o Protestants have most suicides because they focus more on individualism and relationship with God o Catholics are very integrated into communities o Jews have least suicides because they are very community based; stick together, persecution brings people together • Social Forces and Deviance o Strain theory: explains how society gives us certain templates for acting correctly or appropriately; deviance occurs when a society doesn’t give all members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals • Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Deviance o Labeling theory: individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them and their reactions to those labels over time form the basis of their self identity o Primary deviance: first act of rule breaking that may incur a label of deviant and influence how people think about/act toward you o Secondary deviance: deviant acts that occur after primary deviance and as a result of your new deviant label • Stigma o Secondary deviance can become a social stigma o Stigma: negative social label that not only changes others’ behaviors toward a person but also alters that person’s self-concept and social identity (mental illness, pedophilia, criminal record, race) • Broken Windows Theory of Deviance o Broken car in Palo Alto and in South Bronx o Car in Palo Alto remained untouched while the one in the South Bronx lost its hubcaps, battery, other usable parts o In Bronx, a bad neighborhood, social context encouraged deviant acts because of the neighborhood setting of decay and disorder; signaled to residents that it was fair game o Explains how social context and social cues impact whether individuals act deviantly; whether local, informal social norms allow deviant acts • Crime is a more formal sort of deviance • Street crimes, white collar crimes • Crime reduction o Recidivism: the reversion of an individual to criminal behavior after involvement with the criminal justice system Stratification/Class • Stratification: structured social inequality; systematic inequalities among groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships • Social equality: condition where there are no differences in wealth, power, prestige, etc. • Equality of opportunity: idea that inequality of condition is acceptable as long as the rules of the game remain fair o Bourgeois society: society of commerce in which maximization of profit is the primary business incentive • Equality of condition: the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point • Equality of outcome: each player should end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the game o Free rider problem dooms this idea • Forms of stratification o Estate system: feudal Europe  Politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility  Power is distributed unequally o Caste System  Religion based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility o Class system  Economically based system of stratification characterized by relative categorization and loose social mobility  Karl Marx • Proletariat: working class • Bourgeoisie: capitalist class • Fundamental split between the owners of capital and the workers who don’t own capital • Maturing of industrial capitalism would widen the gap between the have and have nots  Max Weber • Stratification isn’t solely income based; other differences besides property like skills and credentials; status mattered o Elite Mass Dichotomy System  Governing elite; few people who hold the power in a society  Meritocracy: society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability • We believe in this in America; we don’t like durable inequalities that are transferred from generation to generation • Social Reproduction vs. Social Mobility o Social mobility: movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society o Structural mobility: inevitable from changes in the economy o Status attainment model: ranks individuals by socioeconomic status including income and educational attainment; seeks to specify that attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations • Bordieu o Social closure: any way a group tries to maintain exclusive control over resources, limiting access to them o Culture capital: ease and familiarity you have with “high brow” culture o Habitus: set of dispositions inscribed on you; your character instinct o Taste: hidden form of symbolic power that maintains and legitimizes hierarchy and oppression; high brow vs. low brow • Privilege o How is privilege made? o Elites don’t see this as something they’re born into, they think they’ve earned it o Upper class reproduced through culture  Upper class want children to have a range of talents • Concerned cultivation  Working class • Unstructured free time  Elite institutions need well rounded students; families could afford to make them well rounded • Capitalism and Marx o Exchanges are driven by competition o Replaces feudalism and begins with European industrialization o Urbanization, division of labor between owners and workers, efficiency, innovation o Workers will demand revolution and band together over collective plight o All aspects of social life are determined by a mode of production o Capitalist base  Economic relations of production  Culture o Every institution reflects the interest of a capitalist base and perpetuates inequality o All the things in your life connect back to a capitalist system  Those that ha
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