Inductive – qualitative, more journalistic. Micro. Not scientific. Best way to
understand the world is to get into individual minds. Small scaled. Eg of an inductive
study – Understand a small village by observing the daily life.
Deductive – based on deduction, coming to logical conclusions about the work.
Establishing a theory. Looks at mass phenomenon. Macro. Eg of a deductive study
Ethnomethodology and symbolic interaction are both inductive and small scaled.
Concepts in ethnomethodology
(Goffman) Breaching experiment –Intentional misstep. Helps us show social norms, it
disrupts the taken for granted norms in society.
Saving face –
Symbolic interactionism – inductive. How people make meaning through social
interaction. Micro level.
Research ethics (milgrim’s experiment) – ethical violation – electric shocks.
1. Mental harm . More harm than good from the experiment.
2. Informed consent/ deception You are told what the study is and are allowed
to leave midway.
Socialization – how do we become the people we are.
Sociologists have notice a paradox in socialization – There is no individual without
society and there is no society without an individual.
Social interaction is necessary for mental development and a functional sense of self –
study genii the wild child.
The girl was kept isolated for 10 years and hence had very little social IQ.
Theories/concepts that make us who we are:
The generalized other – between 35 years old we come to understand the outside
world. We understand that others are distinct from others. If we act ‘A” how will the
generalized other react. (the entire society, not an individual)
The Looking Glass Self – We develop an identity by how others see us. Example – if
you were encouraged during your childhood by your parents you develop confidence.
Theories of social construction of deviance:
Deviance is socially constructed and defined, varies socially and culturally. (changes
from time to time and place to place) Rosenhan Labeling theory. Being sane in insane places. Comes from symbolic
Primary deviance – the label we receive
Secondary deviance– Stigma. If your labeled as a criminal in society.
Quiet rage – Zimbado –