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Exam 1 Review.docx

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Boston University
CAS SO 207
Ruha Benjamin

Notes: Why should we discuss Race and Ethnicity? • Sense of “who” we are • If we talk about it, we can possibly conquer it • Close gaps, like income gaps • Helps us define ourselves together • Conveys a set of values and beliefs of how we should interact “all people are created equal” • Ahistory and a future Notes: • Race is a “myth”—no biological basis for race (Brazil—change race—don’t use the same factors to base it on) • Race is a social construction and it changes based on society’s changes • Race is still very active • 1500’s: age of discovery: what we look at for racial divides—scientific reasoning and discovery • Race was a categorization tool during “TheAge of Discovery o Based on “phenotypes” o Science says genotypes are similar in everyone no matter what the race o Religion and language can discern between races  Scientifically, race has been abandoned  We are single species—we do not have “breeds”  There is no evidence that there was ever unique “pure” races to begin with  There is more genetic variation within races than between race • Thomas—anything we define as real is real in its consequences • One drop rule—if you have one drop of any “black” you’re considered black • Sometimes nativeAmericans are considered nativeAmericans and sometimes not. • Ethnicity: o Sharing a unique set of cultural characteristics and a sense of community  Preferable term  Ascribed status Ethnicity  WASP culture: o WhiteAnglo-Saxon protestant o Very responsible for creating our racial groups or ideas we have today o Ethnocentrism: develops from a “we” feeling o Racism:  Adoctrine • Humans are divided naturally • Differences are tied to culture, personality, and intelligence Assimilation o Types of assimilation: o Acculturation: individual acquires language, dress, food o PrimaryAssimilation (structural): equal opportunities in residence, education, friendship, clubs, etc. o SecondaryAssimilation (structural): equal opportunities in economy and politics Ethnicity vs. Race o Ethnicity: set of cultural standards that people share as an identity marker o Race: social connotations, phenotypes Ethnocentrism: o Relate other cultures to ourselves o Upside: creates a sense of belonging o Downside: cannot exist with very different cultures Cultural Relativism: o We see people as different but they are no better or worse than us Racism: o Racism is a doctrine—when it becomes part of our culture o Humans are divided naturally o The differences are tied to culture, personality, and intelligence o Differences between groups are genetic or innate—creating superiority o Actions and policies result from these beliefs o Social stratification crises (layers, hierarchy, different groups have different opportunities) Social Stratification o Definition of a minority group: o Differential treatment o Socially defined o Differential in power o Categorical treatment Functionalism (Human Capital Theory)Assumptions: o Society is like a living organism o Racism can be functional for the dominant group and dysfunctional for both groups o Status attainment (the Bell Curve) is a result of: o Education levels o Personal values and skills o Success is a result of: o Individual effort o Wise investment of personal resources o Holds with American “Rugged Individualism” concepts Conflict Theory (The Noel+Blauner Hypotheses)Assumptions: o Focuses on the struggle for resources—particularly during initial contact periods o The (Donald) Noel Hypothesis: o When groups come together in a situation characterized by (1) ethnocentrism, (2) competition, and (3) differential in power, stratification develops (think of Noah’s Arc…noah, noel, sounds similar) o The (Robert) Blauner Hypothesis: o Colonized minority groups experience longer and more intense prejudice, racism, and discrimination than those created by immigration Symbolic Interactionism or Labeling Theory o Theory focuses on perception of groups (stereotypes) and the resulting interactions, such as self fulfilling prophecy Forms of Contact: o Colonization: o Conquest o Annexation (Louisiana purchase) o Slavery o Immigration Outcomes of Contact: o Extermination or genocide o Expulsion/internment o Segregation or separation o Fusion/Amalgamation/”Melting Pot” o A+B+C=D o Assimilation o A+B+C=A o Pluralism: o A+B+C=A+B+C Types of Assimilation: o Acculturation: individual learning new culture (but maybe not treated as equal) o Primary assimilation (structural): equal opportunity in residence/education/friends o Secondary assimilation (structural): equal opportunity in economy and politics, representation Factors other than Contact that affect Structural Outcomes: o Time of Entrance o Solidity of society o Duration/influx o Size o Concentration (ex: China Town; they don’t need to acculturate) o Dependency vs. isolation o Cultural similarity o Visibility/Appearance ABC’s of group interaction: o Prejudice: an Attitude or Affect (feeling) o Discrimination: a Behavior (acting) o Stereotype: a Cognition (thinking) You can discriminate and not be prejudice; you can be prejudice and not discriminate. Prejudice: judgment based on a fixed mental image of some group or category of people applied to all individuals of that class without being tested against reality. o An attitude or affect is FELT o This is the most difficult to change as it is emotional. Stereotype: pictures in our heads (thoughts/cognition) o Natural shorthand o Rational stereotypes o Ethnic/racial stereotypes o Selective perception and reinforcement o Thoughts can be changed by repeated and continual education o Schemas (file folders) must change info to fit into scheme and justify his past views—this is what changes schema (personal trouble vs. Public issue) Discrimination: o Goes beyond mental and emotional—allows dominant groups to carry out action (positions of power) o Types of discrimination: o Micro-discrimination: individual racism (like Fred from Crash) o Macro-discrimination: ideological racism (policy discriminates) o Institutional discrimination (corporations discriminate) o Discrimination is the easiest to address beca
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