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COMPLETE Sociology of Race and Ethnicity Notes: Part 5 [got 4.0 in the course]

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CAS SO 207
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RACE AND ETHNICITY NOTES Diversity and Society 2/17/14 Pages 246-271 The Continuing Struggle for Development in ContemporaryAmerican Indian-White Relations • Conflicts betweenA.I. and larger society are far from over • Natural Resources o Lands allotted to tribes have been very valuable due to resources on them (oil, natural gas, coal, etc.)—They will continue to become more valuable o Threats to A.I. assets like these are common (real estate developers, energy companies, fishers, etc.) o Autonomy allows them to benefit from these resources due to 1975 Indian Self- Determination Act o Tribes are banding together to negotiate with larger society and benefit themselves (Council of Energy resource tribes in 1975 controlled development of mineral resources on reservation lands) • Attracting Industry to the Reservation o Some packages have been developed to create jobs by attracting industries to reservations with low taxes, rent, etc. but these have been unsuccessful o Jobs that do come are usually low wage and have few benefits and managerial positions are occupied by non-A.I. –these jobs have low potential at bettering economy o Ex: Navajo (Arizona, New Mexico, Utah) own 20 million acres but most is desert and not suitable for farming; rely on corn and sheepherding; most wage-earning jobs are with gov’t o Navajo protect the environment from being exploited for coal/mining but even when it is exploited, it creates very few jobs and does not benefitA.I. o Poverty rate is 3x greater for Navajo than whites and only 60-70% complete high school o Choctaw is a tribe that does well, 10 largest employers in the state (MS) because of high quality labor for low wages (poverty is only 2x greater for Choctaw than whites) and educational standards are much closer to national average o College educated; Choctaw: >20%, Navajo: ~10% o Income: Choctaw ~80% of non-white income; Navajo ~10k less than that o These 2 tribes prove bringing jobs to reservations is possible but difficult o Self-determination is an important key to success;A.I. ethnic enclave focuses on group cohesion and solidarity (notAmericanization) • Broken Treaties o Many tribes pursue trail of broken treaties and seek compensation for the wrongs of the past o Passamaquoddy and Penobscot fought for land/money lost in the past, settled for much less than they demanded but it gave control over resources for economic development o Every tribe has similar grievances but they have to be experienced legally and afford expensive lawsuits before they get something out of the gov’t o This has some limitations and risks • Gaming and Other Development Possibilities o Gambling industry is a resource forA.I. made possible by legislation o Industry has grown over the past 10 years o Most profitableA.I. gambling operation is Foxwoods casino (CN) from Pequot tribe—profits are used to repurchase tribal lands, housing assistance, medical benefits, education scholarships, etc. o Reservations increased per capita income faster than the nation as a whole and reservations with casinos made more o Autonomy and benefits of gambling industry make it an option forA.I. to raise their standards of living—despite some success, lives of manyA.I. continue to be limited by poverty, powerlessness, prejudice, and discrimination ContemporaryAmerican Indian-White Relations • Prejudice and Discrimination o On stereotype depictsA.I. as bloodthirsty savages, the second image is “the noble Red Man” living in harmony with nature, symbolizing good will o First stereotype has faded away but the second still remains today o “The noble Red Man” features headdresses, bows, tepees, etc. which obliterates the diversity ofA.I. culture and lifestyles o A.I. are referred to as past tense, as if their present situation was not important or no longer existed o Many history books omit the section prior to “discovering”America of native civilization o Athletic team mascots are talked about as persisting the stereotypes ofA.I.; protests against this are usually ignored o We can’t tell if prejudices forA.I. have changed since few studies have been done on them throughout time o Social distance scale tracks prejudice over time, prejudice forA.I. declined (less social distance between) so more subtle forms of modern racism appear o A.I. women are thought to be, like other women in minority groups, paid less than their male counterparts in similar circumstances o Even though prejudice has decreased, stereotyping is still common o Institutional discrimination is a major barrier forA.I. who have not had access to opportunities for education and employment • Assimilation and Pluralism o Acculturation  Some tribes have maintained tribal language and still speak it, while others have <10% of members speaking the language at home (the better end is ~50% of tribe speaking at home, like Navajo and Pueblo)  Most widely spokenA.I. languages are now endangered (~11% remaining)  Most languages spoken on a daily basis are by older generation and not children and this can lead to disappearance of allA.I. languages  Some programs try to preserve the language but we don’t know if they are successful  Religions and value systems, political and economic structures, and recreational patterns have all survived the military conquest and depredations of reservation life  Still reflect group orientation rather than individual  Maintain the NativeAmerican Church but their use of hallucinogens (peyote) conflicts with greater society  A.I. have been more successful thanA.A. in preserving traditional cultures due to difference in dominant-minority relationship with white culture (competition of labor vs. competition for land)  Vitality ofA.I. culture has increased in greater tolerance and support for pluralism in lar
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