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COMPLETE Sociology of Race and Ethnicity Notes: Part 2 [got 4.0 in the course]

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CAS SO 207
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• Introduction toAfricanAmericans o The experience of AAis unique—entry through involuntary means o TheAmerican Race binary structure—two races (Brazil is a contrast to this since they identify multiple races) • Development of the Black Minority o Slavery: paternalistic domination  First records in 1619: undetermined legal status  By 1660s most areas had established laws (cut tendons if slave ran away— not killing) • The Choice of Blacks as Slaves o Competition Changes  Immigration from Europe—a short term solution (indentured servants contract) complete citizens once free  White Ethnocentrism • Distinct physical and cultural traits—why they are chosen (runaways) • NativeAmericans were unsuitable as slaves (Africans already had formed skills and resistance to European disease since they had been in contact) o NativeAmericans had no resistance to disease (small pox) o Hunting and gathering culture (not used to agricultural farming) o Known territory—it is easier to escape o More established resources—well aware of infiltration and had resources to help tribes out • The Development of a Racist Ideology o The cycle of prejudice  Social structure precedes belief system (prejudice) o Beliefs develop to justify the system  Physiological features—AfricanAmericans designed to be good labor/animal work force  Less developed technology inAfrica  Use of Christian ideology—not what Christianity intends to do; how to justify this: God’s intention; these people were condemned to slavery  Social Darwinism[natural selection]—Darwin never discussed race  Fear of miscegenation • Fear of biracial marriage, children “mixing,” etc. • Lincoln—Great Emancipator? [Cultural Myth] o Lincoln was from north and pro-industry o Felt thatAAslaves should be sent to the Caribbean or back toAfrica (he doesn’t want to talk about it) o Used slaves for need of victory and soldiers o Comes from Illinois (not agricultural state) representing industry and push for capitalism—his constitutency—became polically important for him to support industrialism and abolish slavery o Proclamation: a running slave that comes to north is free o Army fueled by passion • Racial Caste: Reconstruction and its end o Problem: free, unemployed, slave population that plantation owners can’t afford to hire o Promise of reconstruction  Freedom to vote, hold office, buy and sell property, aspects of secondary assimilation o Establishment of the Freedman’s bureau  Food rations  Education  Establishment and hospitals o Created competition for poor whites, differential of power in favor ofAA, anger from poor whites and plantation owners o Labor mediation • The Disputed 1876 presidential election (Tilden vs. Hayes) and Compromise of 1877 o Tilden was democratic; Hayes was republican (closest election every: unpopular vote: only 1 electoral vote difference) • Florida, Louisiana, Southern Carolina—too close to call—20 electoral votes—enough to swing election—one way or the other—Hayes promises large territories in the south if they swing votes to favor him he will immediately pull soldiers in the south from enforcing reconstruction o This is exactly what happened o Allows segregations to being in the
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