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COMPLETE Sociology of Race and Ethnicity Notes: Part 3 [got 4.0 in the course]

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CAS SO 207
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RACEAND ETHNICITY Diversity and Society Pages 330-349 03/31/14 AsianAmericans: Model Minorities? Introduction • Main focus: Chinese and JapaneseAmericans • Modem minority group: successful, affluent, highly educated people who do not suffer from the problems usually associated with minority group status • “Asian American” deemphasizes differences between varying ethnicities inAsia • Small portion of population (<6% of allAmericans) compared toA.A. at 13% and HispanicAmericans at 16% • MostAsian American groups have grown dramatically recently due to high rates of immigration since 1965 changes in US policy • JapaneseAmerican population grew the slowest rate;Asian Indians quadrupled, and other groups doubled (overall population projected to grow from 6% to 10%) • Majority today are first generation Origins and Cultures • Bring different languages and religions (Buddhism, Confucianism, Islam, Hinduism, Christianity) • Asian cultures stress group membership over individual self-interest (ex: Confucianism) • Kinship ties determined inheritance patterns/interpersonal relations with family members • Asian cultures stress sensitivity to opinions and judgments of others and the importance of avoiding public embarrassment and not giving offense • Western cultures are morally motivated by guilt and avoiding what makes them feel guilty whileAsian cultures stress importance of maintaining the respect and good opinion of others and avoiding shame and public humiliation. • Emphasize proper behavior, conformity to convention and judgment of others, and avoiding embarrassment • Chou and Feagin interviewedAsianAmericans from different groups and found conformity to be how they cope with discrimination/rejection in white society • Male-dominate societies (Chinese women expected to serve first father, then husband, and then eldest son; they expressed subordinance by binding their feet to prevent from “wandering away”) • Philippines, India, and Vietnam were all colonized by Western nations so transition to the US is a little bit easier Contact Situations and the Development of the ChineseAmerican and JapaneseAmerican Communities • Introduction o EarliestAsian groups to arrive were from China and Japan; contact situation featured massive rejection and discrimination. o Both groups adapted to racism by forming enclaves, a strategy that proved beneficial • ChineseAmericans o Early Immigration and Anti-Chinese campaign: o Arrived in early 1880s; motivated by same social/economic forces o Pushed to leave homeland by disruption caused by colonization o Pulled to West Coast by Gold Rush of 1849 o Noel Hypothesis is useful: the three conditions (ethnocentrism, competition, and differential in power) in West Coast betweenAnglo-Americans and Chinese- Americans created a vigorous campaign against the Chinese  Competition was muted at first since there was an abundance of jobs but once gold rush petered out, it was very present (~1869): seen as threat  1871—LA mob of whites shot, hanged, and stabbed 19 Chinese to death  They controlled few power resources with which to withstand these attacks (not able to become US citizens) o US Congress passed Chinese ExclusionAct in 1882, banning virtually all immigration from China; the first restrictive immigration law and aimed solely at Chinese; established “rigid competitive” relationship  Primary antagonists were native-born workers/organized labor  Remained in effect until WWII, when China was awarded a yearly quota of 105 immigrants in recognition of its wartime alliance with US  Large-scale immigration from China did not resume until federal policy revised in 1965 o Population Trends and the “Delayed” Second Generation: o Following exclusion act, number of Chinese declined. o US was mostly male (25:1 at one point) and scarcity of Chinese women in US delayed the second generation (first born in US)  May have reinforced the exclusion of Chinese community, since children of immigrants are much more acculturated and held citizenship o The Ethnic Enclave:  Settled into large urban areas such as San Francisco (  “Invisible minority”  Social structure mirrored traditional China (food, dress, language, values, religion, etc.)  Disputes over resources and organization  Secret societies called tongs contested the control and leadership of the merchant-led huiguan and the clan associations; bloody conflicts were sensationalized inAmerican press as “Tong Wars,” and contributed to popular stereotype ofAsians as exotic, mysterious, and dangerous  Highly organized—internal “city government” was Chinese Consolidated BenevolentAssociation (CCBA); dominated by clans and huiguan  CCBAattempted to combat anti-Chinese campaign, speaking out, but was handicapped by lack of resources (non-citizens) o Survival and Development:  ChineseAmerican community survived despite poverty, discrimination, and unbalanced sex ratio  Found economic opportunity in areas where dominant group competition for jobs was weak  Small businesses (restaurants, laundries) o The Second Generation:  Second generation was more influenced by larger society; looked beyond the enclave to fill their needs—came into contact with YMCA
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