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COMPLETE Sociology of Race and Ethnicity Notes: Part 8 [got 4.0 in the course]

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Boston University
CAS SO 207

Pages 130-141 Industrialization and Dominant-Minority Relations: From Slavery to Segregation and the Coming of Postindustrial Society • Richard Wright expresses his hatred for segregation in his major works, this one discusses the kitchenette (tiniest apartments available) from “Death on the City Pavement” a reaction to Jim Crow segregation and migration out of the South and the discrimination he faced • Dominant-minority group relations change as the subsistence technology changes • The agrarian era ended in the 1800s and US required new structures and processes to maintain racial stratification and white privilege—went through 2 changes o (1) Industrial revolution (1800s-1950s)—machines replaced labor, boosted economy o (2) Postindustrial Era/Deindustrialization (1950s-present), marked by  Adecline in manufacturing sector of the economy and a decrease in the supply of secure, well-paid, blue-collar, manual-labor jobs  An expansion in the service and information-based sectors of the economy and increase in white-collar “high-tech” jobs • Modern institutional discrimination arises Industrialization and the Shift from Paternalistic to Rigid Competitive Group Relations • Industrial revolution began in England in mid-1700s and spread to US and world • Close, paternalistic control of minority groups became irrelevant (difficult to maintain in a city) • Paternalism gives way to rigid competitive group relations—minority group members are free to compete for jobs (often settling for low wages) and the dominant group feels threatened and attacks minority group (via prejudice and discrimination) o Rigid Competitive systems, unlike paternalistic systems, do not require members of minority group to be active participants but hinder minority’s ability to compete and sometimes eliminate competition from minority group The Impact of Industrialization on the Racial Stratification of African Americans: from Slavery to Segregation • Because of more resources, the North defeated the South in the civil war and slavery was abolished after 1865; this section looks at black-white relations from end of Civil War through the coming of segregation in South and mass migration ofA.A. to cities in industrializing North • Reconstruction o Period of reconstruction (1865-1880s): Union army and agencies of Federal Gov’t were used to enforce racial freedom in the defeated Confederacy andA.A. took advantage of 15 amendment to voting rights o This time was short though and quickly ended, transitioning to a new system of exploitation and inequality o Reconstruction was too brief to change two of the most important legacies of slavery:  (1) Centuries of bondage left black Southerners impoverished, largely illiterate and uneducated, and fewer power resources [Blauner Hypothesis]  (2) Slavery left a strong tradition of racism in the white community—a new social system was created to integrate deeply engrained prejudices into this new time • De Jure Segregation o Sometimes referred to as Jim Crow System, which is by law and legally discriminates (via segregation) againstA.A. o The logic of segregation created a vicious cycle—moreA.A. excluded, the greater the poverty and powerlessness became o Made it easier to use racism to justify further separation o Noel Hypothesis: whites had sufficient power and resources to end competition between blacks and whites for certain jobs and construct repressive systems of control for black Southerners o The Origins of De Jure Segregation  Racial stratification just replaced slavery o Control of Black Labor  Southern legislatures attempted to forceA.A. back into involuntary servitude by passing a series of laws called “Black Codes” but implementation was halted in Reconstruction era  Plantation elite solved their manpower problem by developing a system of sharecropping, or tenant farming. • Sharecroppers worked the land in return for payment in shares of the profit when crop was taken to market. Landowner would supply a place to live and food and clothing on credit • When harvest profits were split, landowners deducted debts of tenant’s from share and landowner took account of this (sometimes/often cheating) and inflated debt—an in
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