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COMPLETE Sociology of Race and Ethnicity Notes: Part 12 [got 4.0 in the course]

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CAS SO 207
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Pages 275-324 HispanicAmericans: Colonization, Immigration, and Ethnic Enclaves • Intro o “Lucresia”—husband away for 2 years at work, arranged to cross border (and smuggle children), she slowly died in desert and husband found her remains to bury her; illustrates how dangerous crossing the border (for work) is for Mexicans o Mexicans are nations largest minority group (>16% ofAmerica) o America reshaped and made by popular items from Mexicans (tortilla chips/salsa) o Three largest Hispanic groups: MexicanAmericans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans o Latinos growing because of high birth rates and immigration o H.A. are partly ethnic minority group and partly racial minority group  Mexicans—mix ofA.I. and European  Puerto Ricans—mix of white and black o Labels and group names are important in HispanicAmerican group  Most identify with family’s country of origin, some identify with “Hispanic” or “Latino,” and some just identify as “American” • MexicanAmericans o LikeA.I., impoverished and small group and powerless, isolated in rural areas distant from industrialization/modernization o LikeA.A., supplied much of the labor for Southern agricultural economy o Most important difference is the proximity of the sovereign nation of Mexico • Cultural Patterns o Major difference is religion (Catholic vs. Protestant) and language  MexicanAmericans are less active in Church o Culture of poverty is associated with them since many are poor (characterizing the poor as lazy and associating this with M.A.)  However, Hispanics are more in favor of “hard work” in getting ahead than most of the population in general o Machismo is another cultural difference—a value system that stresses male dominance, honor, virility, and violence  Stereotypes portray the negatives but fail to emphasize positives such as good provider/respected father, also this is not unique to Hispanics  Strong family ties conflict with individualistic values/success of dominant culture o These differences inhibit communication between dominant and minority group exclusion but provide group cohesion (amongst groups) • Immigration o Intro  Competition is one of key variables in Noel’s hypothesis and shapes relationships between Mexican Immigrants and largerAmerican society (contemporary: jobs) o Push and Pull  Mexicans have been pushed from their homeland and pulled towards US  Mexicans motivated by industrialization and globalization (also wage gap for jobs)  Flow of Mexicans from lower to higher economic opportunities has been affected by conditions in sending and receiving nations o Conditions in Mexico, Fluctuating Demand for Labor, and Federal Immigration Policy  Immigration increases with good times in US and decreases with bad times—reinforced by policies/athions of federal gov’t  Regulation increased around 20 century (1900s) as concerns increased  Decreased during Great Depression—as competition for jobs increased, efforts began to expel Mexican laborers (Noel’s hypothesis)  Gov’t instituted a repatriation campaign aim at deporting illegal Mexican immigrants (Mexican population declined by ~40%)  After depression and towards WWII, US businesses turned to cheap Mexican labor once again • 1942—Bracero program initiated to permit contract laborers (agriculture) to work in US for a limited time and then return to Mexico • Continue for several decades after war and crucial source of labor for US economy –supplying 26% of seasonal farm labor (1960)  At the same time, other programs worked to deport undocumented (illegal) immigrants—Operation Wetback (1950s)—fed authorities deported ~4 million Mexicans • Raids on homes and businesses, ignoring civil and legal rights • US Citizens of Mexican descent were sent to Mexico too  1965—overtly racist national immigration policy incorporated in the 1924 National Origins Act was replaced by a new policy that gave a high priority to immigrants who were family and kin of US citizens  Policy reinforced tendencies of kinship/social networks  1986—Congress passed Immigration Reform and ControlAct—allowing undocumented immigrants who had been in country since 1982 to legalize their status and ~3 million took advantage of this but it did not slow illegal immigration o Recent Immigration from Mexico  Lower standard of living in Mexico  Impetus to immigrate reinforced by globalization of Mexican economy • Forced Mexicans out of traditional way of life  NAFTA(1994) is most significant change to Mexican society—united North American nations with a single trading zone—brought Mexicans across border for new jobs to Mexican economy but other jobs were lost  Mexican wages declined and increased poverty amongst M.A. and driven out of rural economy o The Continuing Debate over Immigration Policy  Hotly debated topics of immigration—fed gov’t attempts to reduce flow by building wall along border; nation divided on implementing more force or not  Key issue is what to do with illegal immigrants—allow them to become citizens or deport them? Should there be criteria they must meet?  Some worry about illegal immigrants impact on job prospects for urban underclass ofAmerica (mostly a minority) o Immigration, Colonization and Intergroup Competition  (1) Flow of population from Mexico is stimulated by powerful political and economic interests in US  (2) Mexican immigrants enter a social system in which colonized status for them has already been established  (3) Review of twisting history of US policy on Mexican immigration should serve as reminder that competition increases prejudice/discrimination Developments in the United States • Continuing Colonization o Usually receive lower wages thanAngloAmericans and further split by gender; M.A. women have worst jobs and receive lowest wages in urban and rural areas o Most M.A. worked in agriculture and women forced to enter job market (paid less) o As US industrialized and urbanized, employment more diversified: M.A. work in manufacturing, construction, transportation, etc. and some moved into middle/upper-class occupations  Most is still concentrated at bottom of occupational ladder o M.A. institutionally discriminated against—separate (and unequal) school systems for M.A. children, “white only” primaries and residential segregation o Continual discrimination in criminal juice system and civil rights violations • Protest and Resistance th o Protest dated back to 19 century o League of United LatinAmerican Citizens (LULAC) founded in Texas in 1929 promoted Americanization and greater educational opportunities for M.A. o Split labor markets yield prejudice for M.A. o M.A. active in labor movement, creating new unions when excluded o M.A. served in armed forces during WWII • Chicanismo (1960s) o Chicanismo: an ideology that guided a protest movement—encompassed demands for justice o Adapted many tactics of civil rights movement o Similar to Black Power ideology by rejecting traditional stereotypes in response to failure of US society to implement promises of integration o Valued group empowerment and militancy rather than assimilation to dominant culture o “Chicanos” was an adopted discriminatory name for Mexican Americans (similar to “Negro” forA.A.); new names came from the minority groups themselves but were twisted in a way by dominant groups to discriminate • Organizations and Leaders o Reies López Tijerina—formedAlianza de Mercedes (Alliance of Land Grants) in 1963; goal was toe correct illegal seizure of land from Mexicans during 19 century  Alianza was militant/confrontational—seized and occupied federal lands;  Tijerina spent several years in jail and his movement lost its strength in 1970s o Rodolfo González—founded Crusade for Justice in 1965—focused on abuses of M.A. civil rights and worked against discrimination by police and courts  Expressed creating power base within group rather than assimilating o JoséAngel Gutiérrez—organizer of La Raza Unida (People United) party, offered alternative candidates/ideas to those of Democrats and Republicans o César Chávez—best known leader of 1960s and 1970s—organized United Farm Workers representing migrant workers  Also organizedA.A., Filipinos, andAngloAmericans  Farm workers were invisible due to lack of economic/political resources and communication yet Chávez succeeded in organizing this group  Like MLK, Chávez was a disciple of Gandhi and student of nonviolent direct protest (boycott) • Organized grape-pickers boycott in 1965 (lasted 5 years) and improved situation for workers • Gender and the Chicano Protest Movement o M.A. women heavily involved in Chicano protest movement—Jessie Lopez and Dolores Huerta were central figures in movement o LikeA.A., Chicano women faced gender discrimination and could not assume leadership roles, just do what is told of her and contribute to the movement Mexican Americans and Other Minority Groups Intro • Like Black and Red Power, Chicanismo began to fade from public view around 70s and 80s • Still pretty unsuccessful since Chicanos continue to face poverty and exploitation • These trends are reinforced in cities, too • Constant travel back and forth across border has kept Mexican culture and Spanish language alive inAmerica • Traditional model of assimilation (based on European immigrant groups) does not accurately describe M.A. situation • Less educated and recent immigrants rationalize the continuing exclusion from larger society job-wise (putting a lot of them in unskilled labor force) Puerto Ricans • Intro o Became territory of US after defeat of Spain in Spanish-America War of 1898 o Island small and impoverished, difficult to avoid domination; initial contact of war and conquest—colonized minority group o P.R. began to migrate to mainland—retained that status on mainland • Migration (Push and Pull) and Employment o P.R. relied on farming and exporting coffee and sugar o US invested in developing sugarcane industry, taking more land; peasants forced to move into cities o Movement to mainland began gradually and increased slowly until 1940s, then skyrocketed (peaked in 50s)  Result of P.R. becoming citizens of US in 1917 and unemployment on the island and labor shortages on mainland that attracted Mexican immigrants during and after WWII o Movement began decades after Mexican migration and more P.R. are concentrated in urban labor markets o New York was major center of settlement as there was affordable air travel between San Juan and NYC in late 40s o In 60s, jobs increased in P.R. and migration declined and reversed itself when economy faltered in 70s o Most are in low-status jobs and women are concentrated as seamstresses in NYC • Transitions o Move to mainland involved change in culture/language o P.R. overwhelmingly Catholic and had to change practices on mainland to more general rather than based off of other groups like P.R. were (churc
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