Study Guides (248,366)
United States (123,346)
Sociology (220)
CAS SO 207 (24)
All (22)

COMPLETE Sociology of Race and Ethnicity Notes: Part 12 [got 4.0 in the course]

10 Pages
109 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
CAS SO 207
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Pages 275-324 HispanicAmericans: Colonization, Immigration, and Ethnic Enclaves • Intro o “Lucresia”—husband away for 2 years at work, arranged to cross border (and smuggle children), she slowly died in desert and husband found her remains to bury her; illustrates how dangerous crossing the border (for work) is for Mexicans o Mexicans are nations largest minority group (>16% ofAmerica) o America reshaped and made by popular items from Mexicans (tortilla chips/salsa) o Three largest Hispanic groups: MexicanAmericans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans o Latinos growing because of high birth rates and immigration o H.A. are partly ethnic minority group and partly racial minority group  Mexicans—mix ofA.I. and European  Puerto Ricans—mix of white and black o Labels and group names are important in HispanicAmerican group  Most identify with family’s country of origin, some identify with “Hispanic” or “Latino,” and some just identify as “American” • MexicanAmericans o LikeA.I., impoverished and small group and powerless, isolated in rural areas distant from industrialization/modernization o LikeA.A., supplied much of the labor for Southern agricultural economy o Most important difference is the proximity of the sovereign nation of Mexico • Cultural Patterns o Major difference is religion (Catholic vs. Protestant) and language  MexicanAmericans are less active in Church o Culture of poverty is associated with them since many are poor (characterizing the poor as lazy and associating this with M.A.)  However, Hispanics are more in favor of “hard work” in getting ahead than most of the population in general o Machismo is another cultural difference—a value system that stresses male dominance, honor, virility, and violence  Stereotypes portray the negatives but fail to emphasize positives such as good provider/respected father, also this is not unique to Hispanics  Strong family ties conflict with individualistic values/success of dominant culture o These differences inhibit communication between dominant and minority group exclusion but provide group cohesion (amongst groups) • Immigration o Intro  Competition is one of key variables in Noel’s hypothesis and shapes relationships between Mexican Immigrants and largerAmerican society (contemporary: jobs) o Push and Pull  Mexicans have been pushed from their homeland and pulled towards US  Mexicans motivated by industrialization and globalization (also wage gap for jobs)  Flow of Mexicans from lower to higher economic opportunities has been affected by conditions in sending and receiving nations o Conditions in Mexico, Fluctuating Demand for Labor, and Federal Immigration Policy  Immigration increases with good times in US and decreases with bad times—reinforced by policies/athions of federal gov’t  Regulation increased around 20 century (1900s) as concerns increased  Decreased during Great Depression—as competition for jobs increased, efforts began to expel Mexican laborers (Noel’s hypothesis)  Gov’t instituted a repatriation campaign aim at deporting illegal Mexican immigrants (Mexican population declined by ~40%)  After depression and towards WWII, US businesses turned to cheap Mexican labor once again • 1942—Bracero program initiated to permit contract laborers (agriculture) to work in US for a limited time and then return to Mexico • Continue for several decades after war and crucial source of labor for US economy –supplying 26% of seasonal farm labor (1960)  At the same time, other programs worked to deport undocumented (illegal) immigrants—Operation Wetback (1950s)—fed authorities deported ~4 million Mexicans • Raids on homes and businesses, ignoring civil and legal rights • US Citizens of Mexican descent were sent to Mexico too  1965—overtly racist national immigration policy incorporated in the 1924 National Origins Act was replaced by a new policy that gave a high priority to immigrants who were family and kin of US citizens  Policy reinforced tendencies of kinship/social networks  1986—Congress passed Immigration Reform and ControlAct—allowing undocumented immigrants who had been in country since 1982 to legalize their status and ~3 million took advantage of this but it did not slow illegal immigration o Recent Immigration from Mexico  Lower standard of living in Mexico  Impetus to immigrate reinforced by globalization of Mexican economy • Forced Mexicans out of traditional way of life  NAFTA(1994) is most significant change to Mexican society—united North American nations with a single trading zone—brought Mexicans across border for new jobs to Mexican economy but other jobs were lost  Mexican wages declined and increased poverty amongst M.A. and driven out of rural economy o The Continuing Debate over Immigration Policy  Hotly debated topics of immigration—fed gov’t attempts to reduce flow by building wall along border; nation divided on implementing more force or not  Key issue is what to do with illegal immigrants—allow them to become citizens or deport them? Should there be criteria they must meet?  Some worry about illegal immigrants impact on job prospects for urban underclass ofAmerica (mostly a minority) o Immigration, Colonization and Intergroup Competition  (1) Flow of population from Mexico is stimulated by powerful political and economic interests in US  (2) Mexican immigrants enter a social system in which colonized status for them has already been established  (3) Review of twisting history of US policy on Mexican immigration should serve as reminder that competition increases prejudice/discrimination Developments in the United States • Continuing Colonization o Usually receive lower wages thanAngloAmericans and further split by gender; M.A. women have worst jobs and receive lowest wages in urban and rural areas o Most M.A. worked in agriculture and women forced to enter job market (paid less) o As US industrialized and urbanized, employment more diversified: M.A. work in manufacturing, construction, transportation, etc. and some moved into middle/upper-class occupations  Most is still concentrated at bottom of occupational ladder o M.A. institutionally discriminated against—separate (and unequal) school systems for M.A. children, “white only” primaries and residential segregation o Continual discrimination in criminal juice system and civil rights violations • Protest and Resistance th o Protest dated back to 19 century o League of United LatinAmerican Citizens (LULAC) founded in Texas in 1929 promoted Americanization and greater educational opportunities for M.A. o Split labor markets yield prejudice for M.A. o M.A. active in labor movement, creating new unions when excluded o M.A. served in armed forces during WWII • Chicanismo (1960s) o Chicanismo: an ideology that guided a protest movement—encompassed demands for justice o Adapted many tactics of civil rights movement o Similar to Black Power ideology by rejecting traditional stereotypes in response to failure of US society to implement promises of integration o Valued group empowerment and militancy rather than assimilation to dominant culture o “Chicanos” was an adopted discriminatory name for Mexican Americans (similar to “Negro” forA.A.); new names came from the minority groups themselves but were twisted in a way by dominant groups to discriminate • Organizations and Leaders o Reies López Tijerina—formedAlianza de Mercedes (Alliance of Land Grants) in 1963; goal was toe correct illegal seizure of land from Mexicans during 19 century  Alianza was militant/confrontational—seized and occupied federal lands;  Tijerina spent several years in jail and his movement lost its strength in 1970s o Rodolfo González—founded Crusade for Justice in 1965—focused on abuses of M.A. civil rights and worked against discrimination by police and courts  Expressed creating power base within group rather than assimilating o JoséAngel Gutiérrez—organizer of La Raza Unida (People United) party, offered alternative candidates/ideas to those of Democrats and Republicans o César Chávez—best known leader of 1960s and 1970s—organized United Farm Workers representing migrant workers  Also organizedA.A., Filipinos, andAngloAmericans  Farm workers were invisible due to lack of economic/political resources and communication yet Chávez succeeded in organizing this group  Like MLK, Chávez was a disciple of Gandhi and student of nonviolent direct protest (boycott) • Organized grape-pickers boycott in 1965 (lasted 5 years) and improved situation for workers • Gender and the Chicano Protest Movement o M.A. women heavily involved in Chicano protest movement—Jessie Lopez and Dolores Huerta were central figures in movement o LikeA.A., Chicano women faced gender discrimination and could not assume leadership roles, just do what is told of her and contribute to the movement Mexican Americans and Other Minority Groups Intro • Like Black and Red Power, Chicanismo began to fade from public view around 70s and 80s • Still pretty unsuccessful since Chicanos continue to face poverty and exploitation • These trends are reinforced in cities, too • Constant travel back and forth across border has kept Mexican culture and Spanish language alive inAmerica • Traditional model of assimilation (based on European immigrant groups) does not accurately describe M.A. situation • Less educated and recent immigrants rationalize the continuing exclusion from larger society job-wise (putting a lot of them in unskilled labor force) Puerto Ricans • Intro o Became territory of US after defeat of Spain in Spanish-America War of 1898 o Island small and impoverished, difficult to avoid domination; initial contact of war and conquest—colonized minority group o P.R. began to migrate to mainland—retained that status on mainland • Migration (Push and Pull) and Employment o P.R. relied on farming and exporting coffee and sugar o US invested in developing sugarcane industry, taking more land; peasants forced to move into cities o Movement to mainland began gradually and increased slowly until 1940s, then skyrocketed (peaked in 50s)  Result of P.R. becoming citizens of US in 1917 and unemployment on the island and labor shortages on mainland that attracted Mexican immigrants during and after WWII o Movement began decades after Mexican migration and more P.R. are concentrated in urban labor markets o New York was major center of settlement as there was affordable air travel between San Juan and NYC in late 40s o In 60s, jobs increased in P.R. and migration declined and reversed itself when economy faltered in 70s o Most are in low-status jobs and women are concentrated as seamstresses in NYC • Transitions o Move to mainland involved change in culture/language o P.R. overwhelmingly Catholic and had to change practices on mainland to more general rather than based off of other groups like P.R. were (churc
More Less

Related notes for CAS SO 207

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit