Study Guides (238,612)
United States (119,856)
Sociology (217)
CAS SO 215 (17)

Study Guide_Midterm 1.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Boston University
CAS SO 215
Joseph Harris

Savan Shah SO 215 Midterm #1 Study Guide Introduction • Social Enterprise  Effort to explore the relationship between individual biography and social structure • Importance of Medical Sociology oHealth involves number of factors that are cultural, political, economic, and social in nature oFocuses on social causes and consequences of health and illness Epidemiology • Study of the origin and distribution of health problems in population from collection of data from many different sources  Primary focus is large groups of people • Prevalence  Total # of cases of a health disorder that exist at any given time (includes new and pre-existing) • Incidence  # of new cases of a specific heath disorder occurring within a given population during stated period of time oPoint Prevalence  # of cases at a certain point in time (usually day or week) oPeriod Prevalence Total # of cases during a given period of time oLifetime Prevalence  Total # of cases during lifetime • Infant Mortality Rate  Useful as indicator of standard of living oDeaths (per year)/ Births (per year) x 1000 = IMR (# per 1000 live births) • Primary Cause of Death in US  Heart Disease • John Snow + 1854 Cholera Outbreak oGood introduction to forefather of epidemiology and his approach oInvolves investigation of our social world to find answers oShows disease has biological and social causes oShows how cultural change happens and how one paradigm can replace another oImportance of SES • Disease Paradigms from Ghost Map oMiasma Theory  Bad smell and bad air caused disease oContagion/Germ Theory  Disease caused by actual pathogens spread through water oHard to change because the bad air/smell were clearly present and detectable, while the pathogens that were contained within the drinking water were not visible, nor explainable • Cause of 2010 Cholera Outbreak (Haiti) oWaste pits from UN peacekeeping troop camp seeped into nearby river used by villagers o7000 deaths between mid-October (2010) to January 2012 oOriginal cause was misinterpreted like John Snow (initially: due to climatic changes) SES and Health • Social Class  Category or group of people who have approximately the same amount of wealth, status, and power in society oEuropean Focus  Based on differences in employment relationships (decision making autonomy + job security) and work conditions; OCCUPATION Savan Shah SO 215 Midterm #1 Study Guide oUS Focus  Based on wealth, status, and power (Ideas about social stratification) • Components of SES oIncome  Reflects spending power, housing, diet, and medical care oOccupation  Status, responsibility at work, physical activity, health risks oEducation  Person’s skills for acquiring positive social, psychological, and economic resources • Importance of SES to Health  Lower SES, worse health a person will have; Consistent predictor of life expectancy • Social Gradient  Higher education, income, occupation = Lower mortality • SES Relating to Other Factors oRace, Gender, andAge all influence SES • Healthcare cannot counter adverse effects of class position on health • People with low SES  More likely to smoke, live in poor conditions, have poor diets, have more dangerous jobs, more health problems that go untreated • Tenets of Fundamental Cause of Mortality oInfluences multiple diseases oAffects disease outcomes through multiple pathways of risk (risk factors) oInvolve access to resources that can be used to avoid risks or minimize consequences of disease if it occurs oBe reproduced over time by replacing intervening mechanisms • Flexible Resources  Degree of money, knowledge, status, power, and social connections one has that either protects heath or causes premature mortality oFlexible use tells us why SES gradients tend to reproduce over time • What We Can Do oAdvocate policies that encourage medical and health promoting advances, while breaking link between advances and SES resources  May be accomplished by reducing disparities in SES resources or developing interventions that are more equally distributed Gender and Health • Morbidity and Mortality Differences in Men and Women oWomen have higher morbidity  Higher rates of illness and sickness oMen have higher mortality  Higher rates of death from prenatal stages onwards • Smoking Effects in Men vs. Women oWomen lose 14.5 years of life  Face 25% higher risk of developing heart disease than men; 2x risk of lung cancer compared to men oMen lose 13.5 years of life oWomen smoke less cigarettes, but effects are much more prevalent in women • McKinlay’s Study oBackground: Women entered ER, claimed she was having heart attack, not taken seriously, discharged, actually had a heart attack oShows that health statistics are socially constructed and involve both patients and providers Savan Shah SO 215 Midterm #1 Study Guide oNeed more focus on provider/heath system side of things  Differences in how men and women are treated; May account for disparity in heart disease oShows that the gender gap in heart disease is much smaller than currently assumed • Marriage oHas health benefits for both men and women (social, economic, and emotional) Race and Health • Social construction because it has no biological basis • Real because consequences can be observed through these labels • Life Expectancy oHighest among Asians oLowest among AfricanAmericans oHighest to Lowest:Asian
More Less

Related notes for CAS SO 215

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.