[BIOL 15B] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 14 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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Brandeis
BIOL 15B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1: 1/18
Anisocoria - eye pupils are different sizes
Life is diverse
Commonalities in all life:
- Carbon based
- Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA are what make up the information that constructs us)
- Genetic code
- (Proteins - functional unit of the cell)
- Cells
Living:
Reproduce, organic, energy, cells, metabolism, carbon, evolve, dna, genetic…
Living vs. non-living
1. Complexity
2. Ability to change in response to environment
3. Ability to reproduce
4. Capacity to evolve
Minimal unit of life - cell
Common to all cells:
1. Nucleic acids
2. Membranes that define cells and compartments within cells (eukaryotes vs prokaryotes)
3. Metabolism
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryotes
Lecture 2: 1/19
Most prevalent elements on earth: O, Si, Other, Al, Fe, Ca, H, C
Most prevalent in human body: O, C, H, other, ...
Nucleus: protons and neutrons
- Electrons orbit
- Atomic mass = protons + neutrons
- Electrons move in orbitals (full when contain 2 electrons)
Atoms can share electrons (evenly) through covalent bonds
- Bond in ways to fill orbital shells
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When electrons shared unevenly (polar bonds)
- Slightly positive on one side and slightly negative on another side
- Multiple polar bonded molecules = hydrogen bonds
When one atom transfers an electron to another it is an ionic bond
Chemical reactions: breaking and forming bonds
- Reactants and products
Water:
- Good solvent because it is polar
- Hydrophobic (repels some molecules)
- Hydrophilic (attracts molecules)
- Hydrogen bonds make water float when frozen
- Hydrogen bonds crate surface tension
- Hydrogen bonds make water a good insulator
Carbon:
- Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds
- Creates chains that branch, cyclical structures, and double bonds
- Same set of atoms can make a wide variety of molecules with different characteristics
and functions
Organic Molecules are molecules that contain carbon rings or long chains
4 classes of organic molecules:
Lipid, protein, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
Proteins:
- Provide structure of the cell
- Act as catalysts to facilitate chemical reactions
- Structure: Polymers of amino acids, variable “R” groups
- Amino acid → polypeptide chain (protein)
- Primary structure (polypeptide chain), secondary structure (alpha helix or beta sheet),
tertiary structure (interactions), quaternary structure (multiple proteins come together,
hemoglobin)
Lecture 3: 1/23
Nucleic acids:
- Encode genetic information (function)
- Polymer of nucleotides
- RNA(ribonucleic acid) and DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)
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