CST 130 Study Guide - Spring 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Judaism, Jesus, Jesus In Christianity

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12 Oct 2018
Course
Professor
CST 130
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Chapter 1
After returning from their exile in Babylon (587-539 BC), Jewish people began to build
synagogues as local places for worship and teaching, both in Palestine and Diaspora
Alexander the Great conquered the world (332-323 BC) and spread the Greek language and
culture (known as" Hellenism” even in Palestine among the Jewish people
Jewish people in Egypt translated their Hebrew scriptures (=OT) into a Greek language
translation known as the Septuagint
Antiochus 4 Epiphanes the Seleucid ruler from Antioch (175-164 BC), forced Hellenism on
the Jewish people and blatantly desecrated the Jerusalem temple (167 BC)
Judas the Maccabee led a successful revolt against the Greeks from Antioch
Under Judas the Maccabee leadership, the Jewish people RETOOK the JERUSALEM
TEMPLE in December 164BC restored the altar to Yahweh, and instituted the festival of
Hanukkah to commemorate the event
After the Maccabean revolt, their family known as the High Priests ruled the Jewish people
The Romans occupation of PALESTINE began in the year 63BC when the Roman general
Pompey entered Jerusalem with his troops
Herod the Great was appointed by Rome to rule as "King of the Jews"
Herod the Great was an imposing ruler with large building projects throughout the land,
including the renovation of Jerusalem temple
After Herod the Great died, his son Herod Antipas ruled Galilee and beheaded John the
Baptist
The Romans appointed their own prefects and procurators to govern Judea, including Pontius
Pilot who crucified Jesus, ca. 30AD
The first Jewish Revolt against Rome began in the year 66AD which led to the destruction of
Jerusalem and the Temple in the year 70AD and the fall of Masada in AD 73
Josephus was the Jewish historian who described all the events in detail in The Jewish Wars
and The Antiquities of the Jews
The Pharisees were a Jewish sect that were very pious and extremely legalistic
The Pharisees believed in a future resurrection of the righteous, recognized the existence of
angels & demands, and were usually found in rural settings
The Sadducees were a Jewish sect that were the "old school" Jewish aristocrats who held
only to the Torah as scripture, rejected the concept of a resurrection or spirits, and were very
influential in Jerusalem and the Temple
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The Zealots were radical anti-Roman Jews, often associated with Galilee, who led the Jewish
rebellion against Rome in AD 66
The Samaritans were the remnants of the ten northern tribes of Israel who resided in between
Galilee and Judea
The Jews and Samaritans showed bitter animosity towards each other
The Gentiles were the "nations," the non-Jewish people of the world whom Jewish people
denigrated as immoral, idolatrous pagans
Gnostics and other sects wrote Gospels and other books that the mainstream church
categorically rejected
Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2-3 John, the Revelation of John, the Shepherd of Hermes, the
Epistle of Barnabas, and 1-2 Clement, were used as scripture by some and not by others
The earliest known writer to mention all 27 books of the New Testament Canon was
Athanasius bishop of Alexandrian, in 367 AD
The NT books were written in Greek language, but no original copy of any NT book exists
The earliest manuscripts (handwritten copies) were written on papyrus a cheap from of paper
made from plant fiber
More durable manuscripts eventually were made from parchment (refined animal skin)
Over 5500 manuscripts exist in Greek today, but occasionally there are differences in
wording among them
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