HUM 223 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Christianity, Protestant Reformation, French Revolution

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20 Nov 2018
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HUM 223
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Industry and Culture in the 19th Century
Industrialization and Progress
-19th century as the "Age of Progress"
-Industrialization revolutionaries European culture
-Growth of industry and expansion of trade
-Railroads as the means of industrial expansion
Importance of the Railroads
-Transportation of goods
-Dependence on natural resources increases demand
:Increase coal and iron production
:Railroads enable access to remote mines
-Rapid growth demands industrial innovation to increase factory production
Industrial Growth
-Coal output in 1850 (thousands of metric tons)
:Great Britain
50,200
:Germany
5,100
:France
4,434
:Belgium
5,821
:Austria
877
Industrial Growth
-19th century witnessed rapid urbanization
:1830's London gained 130,000 people
:1841-1846 Paris gained 120,000 people
:1815-1848 Berlin gained 180,000 people
-Increased demand for factory workers
:Increased demand for cheaper manufactured goods
-Creation of the "working class"
Great Exhibition of 1851
-Celebration of the age of progress
-Organized by Prince Albert in London
-International fair on technology
Crystal Palace
-Centerpiece of the fair
-Houses the pavilions for each country represented
-Ultimate demonstration of British engineering
Reactions to the Great Exhibition
-Overwhelming success; over 6 million tickets were sold
-Reinforces the status of London as the center of Britain
-Conservatives feared that the exhibition would be the focus of revolutionary mobs
-Radicals (like Marx) viewed it as a display of capitalism's excesses
The Downside of Industrialization
-Growing consumer class also meant a growing working class
-Working class life
:Long work days 6 days a week
:Livelihood dependent on everyone working
:Squalid living conditions (who has time to clean)
Charles Dicks and Urban Poverty
-A Christmas Carol; moral obligations of the middle class towards the working poor
-Oliver Twist; life in an orphanage under the poor laws
-Literature represents social realism
-Oliver Twist is based on the early life of Robert Blincoe
-Robert Blincoe is a rags to middle class story
:Often viewed in the 19th century as the "progressive" nature of industrialization
-Hardships of child labor; basis for Dicken's critique of the factory system
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English Parliament and Industry
-Parliament investigates factory conditions in 1833; Robert Blincoe is interviewed
-Factory act of 1833 restricts child labor
-Poor law amendment act of 1834
:Central commission to oversee poor relief
:Regulates conditions of poor houses
Industrialization of France
-Government expenditure on infrastructure
:Goal is to "catch up" with England
:Railroad law of 1842; construction of a national railroad
-Benefits of "hindsight"; social reform alongside industrial reform
:Primary education law of 1833
:Child labor law of 1841
George Haussman's Plans
-Create wide avenues and eliminate alleys
-Rebuild the city center
-Reorganize social distribution of the city
PAINTINGS:
Crystal Palace
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