PSC 133 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Euclidean Vector, Net Force, Electromagnetic Radiation

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30 Nov 2019
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PSC 133
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Lecture 1
Physical science is any of the natural sciences dealing with inanimate matter or with energy
as physics and chemistry
Physics is the study of matter, energy, motion and force
Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties
What is matter?
Matter is anything that has mass and volume
Scientific Method
To understand the chemical ad physical properties of matter efficiently and
systematically, we must use the scientific method
1. Everything stars from observation
Ex. Ny observation, there seems to be a relation between temperature and the volume of
a gas
2. We hypothesize that the volume of the gas is proportional to the temperature
Ex. We hypothesize that the volume of the gas is proportional to the temperature
3. We must test this hypothesis through an experiment
The information obtained in the experiment is called experimental data
Experimental data alone does not mean very much
4. We need to build a model (theory) that is consistent with the data
Experimental data seems to lie on a straight line
We can model the data by using the formula for a straight line; y =mx+b
If we use kelvin (k) scale for the temperature, we can find a constant at which another
constant b vanishes
The model reduces to a very simple form v=axt
5. Further experiment
As the model (theory) gets very refined through rigorous further experiments and repeated
modifications, it sometimes come to a point that a majority of scientists accept the theory as
truth (which is dangerous). At this point, this refined model becomes accepted a natural law.
Ex. Charle's law of ideal gas
What is science?
1. Endless search for the truth
2. Work in progress
3. Not perfect
-Richard Feynman (1918-1988)
"In fact everything we know is only some kind of approximation, because we know that we
do not know all the laws as yet."
SI Units
-In science, things are usually measured in standard units called SI Units
-SI Unit is a revised metric system accepted by scientists throughout the world
-SI units consist of seven base units and many derived units (combinations of base units)
Base units:
Mass is in kg
Length is in m
Time is in s
Temperature K
Amount of substance
Mol
Electric current A
Luminous intensity cd
Derived units
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Area is in m squared
Cvolume is in cubic meter
Density is in kg per cubic meter
Velocity Is in m per second
And many more…
Decimal prefixes and scientific (exponential) notations
-Scientific measurements deal with gigantic quantities as well as ultra small quantities
Ex. Approximate mass of the earth is 59800000000000000000000 metric tons
Ex. Mass of an electron is 0.000000000000000000009109 g
-To avoid dealing with numerous zeros *which is cumbersome), scientists employ two
methods to simplify numbers
Scientific notation
Scientific notation consists of a decimal part and an exponential part
Ex. 12345m can be written in scientific notation as: 1.2345x10^4 m
Recall:
10^0=1
10^1=10
10^2=100
10^3=1000
10^-1=1/10=0.1
10^-2=1/100=0.01
10^-3=1/1000=0.001
Practice
10^ax10^b=10^a+b
10^2x10^4=10^6
10^2x10^-4=10^-2
10^a/10^6=10^a-b
10^2/10^4=10^-1
10^2/10^-4=10^6
(10^a)^b=10^axb
(10^2)^3=10^6
1/10^a=10^-a
1/10^5=10^-5
-In formal scientific notation decimals must be moved so that the decimal part is a number
greater than or equal to 1 and it must be less than 10
Ex. 1.2x10^-6 s (correct)
Ex. 12x10^-7 s (wrong)
Ex. 0.12x10^-5 s (wrong)
Technique 1
0.0045x10^-5 = 0.0 4.5x10^-3x10^-5
=4.5x10^-3-5
=4.5x10^-8
Technique 2
-Besides scientific notation, we may avoid excess numbers of zeros by using decimal prefixes
Ex. 2000g can be rewritten as 2kg
Ex. 0.003m can be rewritten as 3mm
Common decimal prefixes
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