LECTURE 6 Roman Republic 1. What were the technological achievements of Roman builders? What kinds of new spaces and buildings were made possible by these achievements? Roman builders were some of the first, along with the Etruscans, to start improving and using arch technology in monuments and on larger scale buildings. Using voussoirs and supporting technology, they mastered brick and concrete to create elegant arches. The secret ingredient to Roman concrete was pozzolana, a volcanic ash ingredient which hardens with contact to water. Their use of this strong concrete on the interior of the walls of their structures made shaping and structure easier. 2. What architectural elements did the Romans adopt from Greek architecture? How did they change these elements? Compare and contrast a Roman temple with a Greek temple. The Romans adopted orthogonal urban design (having to do with right angles) from the Greeks. Greek temples used simple lines and mostly doric style columns, while the Romans had more intricate designs and used a more Corinthian style of columns. Greek constructed most of their temples and whole buildings with marble, while Romans used a mixture of concrete and smaller stones to create a more malleable building material, which allowed them to create elegant curves and arches. The Roman use of arches and concrete allowed them to improve the water and sewer systems of the city, and create a better infrastructure. 3. What were the principles of city planning in Timgad and other Roman colonial cities? What were some of the standard building types found in Roman cities such as Rome, Pompeii, and Timgad? What does this rich set of buildings tell us about Roman culture? Roman colonial cities were built off of the model of the Castrum, which were outpost of Roman civilization that were military camps. These camps and the cities are built on a grid, with a cardo and decumanus setting up the orientation. The Romans held on to power because of their infrastructure that they provided for the citizens such as aqueducts, sewer systems, roads, ect., relied on urbanism and architecture to control the masses.