Psych Test 2 Study Guide
Chapter 8: Memory
1.) Memory is reconstructive. People store essentials and use our knowledge to put it
• Flashbulb Memories: Vivid and detailed recollection of a
• Confabulation: Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one
that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never
actually happened. Can be brought about by Imagination Inflation.
2.) Eyewitnesses: Can remember things that never happened if you ask questions like “did
you see the..” not “a”. People tend to remember ethnicity Children: Can be greatly
influenced by interviewers bias on what happened using Imagination Inflation. 3 yr. olds
almost always go along with suggested stuff/ 4-6 yr. olds 50%.
3.) Explicit Memory: Conscious recollection of an event/information.
• Recall Method: Retrieving memory from previous info.
• Recognition Test: Identify info from previous stuff. Ex: multiple choice, T/F.
Implicit Memory: Unconscious retention of memory that affects our thoughts/actions.
• Priming Method: Exposure to Info Task 1 Influences memory Responds to
Task 2 due to info.
4.) Information Processing Model: Similar to a computer.
• Encodes information into a form the brain can work with (convert).
• Stores the info (retain)
• Retrieves the info (recover)
5.) Three Box Model:
• Sensory Register: sensory info from environment/ retention 1-2 s for process /
handles a lot of info.
• Short Term Memory (STM): Limited info / retention 30 s
• Long Term Memory (LTM): Accounts for longer storage.
6.) Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)/ Connectionist Model: Info is now images, but
connections among thousands of interacting parallel units in a vast network. Resembles
brain closer than 3 Box model does.
7.) Sensory Register: acts as a holding bin until we select the items for further attention.
Brief/ there’s one for each sense/ detailed and accurate / info not transferred to STM is
8.) STM: working memory process info for LTM. Retains info for 30s / rehearsal can extend
/ encoded not sensory image/ selects info for LTM. PROBLEMS can quickly forget stuff
(leaky bucket). Can be fixed using CHUNKs. STM capacity is 7 (+-) 2 CHUNKS.
9.) LTM: vast amount of info that needs to be organized and indexed.
• Semantic Categories: We organize things into categories. Ex: Orange – fruit • Network Model of Organization: Semantic networks are universal, use
dependent on person’s experience. Schooling enhances use or semantic
10.) Procedural Memories: Implicit don’t require much conscious processing. Ex:
tying your shoes. Declarative Memories: Explicit composed of Semantic memories:
general info about the world and Episodic Memories: Representations of personally
11.) STM; temporary changes in neurons alter ability to release neurotransmitters.
LTM; make synaptic pathways more responsive to transmitting neurons. Dendrites grow,
some synapse increase and some become less responsive to neurons. Amygdala:
formation/consolidation/retrieval of emotional events. Frontal Lobes: short
term/working memory tasks. Prefrontal areas: encodes pictures and words.
Hippocampus: critical to formation of declarative memories, recall past events, involved
in encoding episodes that are partially reactivated when a person remember it.
12.) Maintenance Rehearsal: repetition keeps info in STM, not good for LTM.
Elaborative Rehearsal: associate items with stuff you know. More you elaborate, better
you remember. Processing: Like ER, analyze meaning of item produces the best
13.) Forgetting is adaptive, memory fades fast (forget nonsense stuff first). Decay
Theory: Memory traces fade in not accessed now and them. Occurs in sensory memory
and STM. Some memories in LTM are accessible for lifetime, decay doesn’t fully
explain forgetting in LTM.
• Easy to plant false memories.
• Remember first items, middle poor, last good. Recency Effect: the upsweep on the right
of the curve that says we are good at remembering things at the end of the list. Still in
awareness (evidence of short term memory) Primacy effect: Good recall for items at
beginning of the list. This got our dedicated attention and went into the long term
• Sensory memory: info that stimulates senses but doesn’t always go to awareness. These
can be Iconic: ½ second a visual store or Echoic: few seconds, an auditory store.
• STM: sensitive to info like hearing your name called. Interference causes it to be lost.
LTM: Remembering requires transferring material back to STM. Forgetting is losing the
ability to bring out the material to the STM.
• Clive: damaged l/r frontal lobe (hippocampus) caused by pressure build up, he couldn’t
remember anything because the hippocampus transfers stuff from STM to LTM. He can
still draw from LTM but nothing new goes in.
• Craik and Tulving (1975): concentrated on different ways people store memories. The
people were shown words and told to ask a question about it. Visual 18%, Sound 78%,
Categorical 93%, Meaning 96%. • How we remember things is dependent on how they are stored. Ex: days of the week in
alphabetical order. Ex: scuba divers. Dry/dry was 13.5 while dry/wet was 8.6 and vice
versa for wet/wet and wet/dry.
Chapter 5: Body Rhythms and Mental States:
1.) Biological Rhythms: Brain clock regulates hormone levels, urine volumes, blood
pressures, endogenous (rhythm generated without external time cues).
2.) Circadian rhythms are controlled by bio clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).
SCN=overall coordinate/master clock located in hypothalamus. Regulates hormones and
neurotransmitters levels by responding to changes in light/dark. Can be desynced by jet
lag, shift work changes.
3.) Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): experience depression during the winter and
improvement in the spring. PMS (premenstrual syndrome): fatigue, headache, irritability,
and depression. Supported by prevalence varies by culture, women have physical
symptoms, women feel grumpy, emotional symptoms associated with menstrual cycle.
4.) We sleep for time-out periods for restoration (eliminate waste, repair cells, strengthen
immune system). Sleep Apnea: breathing stops for few moments. Narcolepsy:
irresistible and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or sleep. REM behavior
disorder: muscles paralysis does not occur during rem. May act out their dreams without
5.) Stage 1: brain waves are small, drifting on the edge of consciousness. Stage 2: brain
waves are short bursts of rapid, high peaking spindles; minor noises won’t disturb you.
Stage 3: brain waves slow, hard to rouse. Stage 4: invasion of delta waves, out cold.
Sleep walking occurs in this stage. REM 82% or the time, NREM 51% of the time, less
vivid more realistic.
6.) Lucid Dreams: when you know you are dreams. Can control the action of a dream.
7.) Dreams as Unconscious wishes: dream content deal with sexual or violent wishes.
Prob: far-fetched no reliable rules for integrating latent content. Dreams as Efforts to
Deal with Problems: symbols/metaphors convey meaning of problems we are having
with current relationships works. Prob: can people solve problems while asleep. More
likely to express problems. Dreams as Thinking: Dreams are a simple variation of
regular cognitive activity. Prob: relatively new and untested. Dreams as Interpreted
Brain Activity: Activation synthesis theory (making sense out of nonsense). Prob:
dreams are not as disjointed or bizarre as theory would predict. What about dreams
outside of REM sleep?
• Train crashes at night, early morning can be caused by lack of sleep.
• Biological clocks: we run on clocks. Circadian: daily cycles like sleep/wake. Body temp
governs this cycle. Infradian: less than once a day like menstrual cycle or hibernation.
Ultradian: more than once a day like heartbeat, breathing. • Cues from the environment tell us stuff like when its bedtime (dark). This are
zeitgerbers. Without cues, organisms revert to own internal cycle (free running).
Humans have a 25 hr cycle
• Suprachiasmatic nucleus: in the hypothalamus, measure time of light and monitors
melatonin. Blind people complain of irregular sleep cycles because they can’t process
• Study: in an isolated hospital wing, they kept patients there on a schedule then let them
free run. They went to bed 1 hr later every night until they returned to the normal
• Stage 1: falling asleep, sudden not gradual. Presence of sleep spindles. Stage 2: people
report not being asleep, 20 minutes, neurons fire in synchronization. K-complexes happen
(cursive k). Respond to noise while asleep. Stage 3-4: about an hour, extreme
synchronization, night terrors and somnambulism and dreams. REM sleep: rapid eye
movement. 30 minutes to a hour, paralysis, arousal of sex organs, dreaming,
desynchronization like when you’re awake. Second 4 hours of sleep is REM and is the
• Record for sleeplessness is 264 hours. Symptoms of lack of sleep are impaired cognition,
hallucinations, paranoia, automatic behavior, microsleep episodes (3-4 seconds) and
falling instantly into REM sleep. Hormonal activities (endocrine looks like diabetes).
Driving on 18 hr awake: BAC 0.05%, 21 hr: BAC 0.08%.
• Theories of Dreaming: 1) Psychoanalytic (Freud): wish fulfillment/desire gratification.
Manifest content (how you describe your dreams). Latent Content (what the dreams
mean). 2) Activation-Synthesis: random signals from pons. Integrated by cortex because
trying to explain while pons are naturally active. 3) Information Processing: mental
housekeeping, mental consolidation of what you need to keep. Problem solving and
insight Ex: benzene ring. NREM dreams are involved with simple retention of new
information. REM dreams are critical in applying info in new/creative ways.
Chapter 9: Learning
1.) Basic Components:
• US Unconditioned Stimulus: causes a reflexive response in absence of learning.
• UR Unconditioned Response: reflexive response to stimulus in absence of
• CS Conditioned Stimulus: causes a conditioned response after being associated
with an unconditioned stimulus.
• CR Conditioned Response: response that comes from US.
2.) CS gives information about what will happen. Predictability. Ex: dogs and meat. Rescola
concluded that the organism is an information seeker using logical relations among
events and its preconceptions to form a representation of its world.
3.) People can be CC to be afraid of stuff like food; if someone gets sick after eating
something. CS is the food and CR. Counter this by giving new responses to the CS. Ex:
little Albert, give milk and crackers when he sees a rabbit. 4.) Consequences: either Reinforcement (response strengthened) or Punishment:
(response is weakened).
• Positive reinforcement: a reward is giving to encourage behavior.
Negative reinforcement: removing an unpleasant stimulus to encourage behavior
• Primary Reinforcers: Unlearned reinforcement tools. Satisfies biological needs.
Primary Punishers: Inherently punishing. Ex: pain
• Secondary Reinforcers: learned reinforcement tools. Ex: money, fame
Secondary Punishers: criticisms, demerits, bad grades
5.) Operant Conditioning:
• Shaping: With complex responses, start with a simple approximation and reward
until you successively get closer to desired response.
• Extinction: when reinforce is gone, response will eventually stop.
• Stimulus generalization: Response generalizes to similar stimuli.
• Stimulus Discrimination: Different responses to similar stimuli.
6.) Continuous Reinforcement: response reinforced every time it occurs. Rapid learning.
Intermittent Reinforcement: Reinforce some responses/resistance to extinction/causes
behavior to persist for a long time.
7.) Superstitions: superstitious behavior may come from coincidental reinforcement.
Intermittent reinforcement makes s.behavior resistant to extinction. Rewarded by others.
8.) Problems with Punishment: 1) punishment given inappropriately/mindlessly 2)
punishment causes people to respond with rage/anxiety/fear/flight 3) We learn to not get
caught 4) misbehavior is hard to punish immediately (not as affective) 5) doesn’t tell
recipient what to do instead of misbehaving 6) punishment seen as attention might be
Alternatives to Punishments: extinction of behavior (ignore it), reinforcement of
substitute behaviors, try to understand purpose of behavior.
9.) Behavior Modification: application of conditioning techniques to teach new responses
or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior; it is also called applied
behavior analysis. Application:
10.) Extrinsic Reinforcers: outside reinforcers not inherently related to the response.
Example: when paid, it seems like work. When pay stops, we don’t do it. We see rewards
as too controlling. Extrinsic reward heighten responding until activity is no longer
Intrinsic Reinforcers: reinforcement inherently related to the activity, pure
enjoyment of task, satisfaction of accomplishment.
11.) Latent Learning: we create a mental representation of the
environment/responses and consequences. Social cognitive learning theories: emphasize
how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others,
positive consequences and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations and beliefs.
Lecture on Learning: • Nature and nurture play a role. Kitten Study: 9/20 away from mom killed the rat. 18/21
raised watching mother killed rat. 3/18 raised with rat killed a rat. Measured at 6 months
and did the study every 4 days for 4 months.
• Learning: the process of relatively permanent change that occurs as a result of an
organisms experience with environment.
• Pavlov’s Dogs: CS (bell), US (food), UR (salivaion. CS(bell), (CR) salivation
• Chemotherapy: US (chemotherapy) UR (sick), changed to lifesaver as (CS) and
disgust/sick (CR). 12/15 still ate dinner.
• Operant Conditioning: learning the relationships beteween the environment, behavior,
and its consequences. Throndike’s Law of Effect: how behavior changes with
• Positive Reinforcement: reward for behavior. Negative Punishment: take away bad
thing to encourage behavior. Positive Punishment: give something bad to punish.
Negative punishment: take away something good to punish.
Chapter 13: Emotions, Stress, and Health
1.) Primary Emotions: Universal/biological based, same situations evoke same emotions
Secondary Emotions: cultural variations, cognitive complexity
2.) Facial Feedback Hypothesis: expressions allow people to communicate with each other.
Facial muscles send messages to brain and affect our emotions.
3.) Left prefrontal cortex: happiness, anger. Damage loses capacity for joy.
Right prefrontal cortex: motivation to withdraw/escape fear, disgust. Damage causes
mania, euphoria and inability to balance emotions.
Amygdala: evaluates info and its importance and prepares for action. Adaptive and
quick. Can be overridden by cortex.
4.) The sympathetic nervous system is aroused when medulla sends out epinephrine and
norepinephrine. This mobilizes the body for action. Lie detectors have problems because
there are no patterns of autonomic nervous system arousal for lying. It can falsely
identify people as being liars.
5.) Primary Emotions: Universal/biologically based. Howeve