Study Guide for Test 3
Chapter Two: Theories of Personality
1) Personality: Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, mannerisms, thoughts,
motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual over time and different situations.
These consist of traits.
2) Freud and Psychoanalysis: Adult personality reflects how well ego handles conflict that
comes from the Id and superego, along with the defense mechanisms you use to reduce
• Emphasis: All psychodynamic theories have an emphasis on intrapsychic
dynamics (under action of outside/internal forces). An assumption that adult
behavior/problems are determined by early childhood.
3) Structure of Personality:
• Id (Pleasure Principle): Reservoir of unconscious energies and instincts. Tries to
reduce tension and gain pleasure. Competing groups of instincts. Tension builds
up in Id which may try to relieve itself by reflex actions, physical symptoms, or
• Ego (Reality Principle): referee between needs of instincts and outside demands
of society. Seeks to satisfy Id in a appropriate way.
• Superego: Represents morality such as the rules of parents/society as well as
power of authority. Judges the wishes and activity of the Id. Provides
A healthy personality has a balance of all three of these. Personality is like an iceberg,
most is below the surface.
Defense Mechanisms: Ego uses these to reduce tension between the Id and the
superego. Can become unhealthy if they cause self-defeating behaviors.
• Repression: blocking a threatening memory/emotion/idea from your
• Projection: Unacceptable or threatening feelings repressed when attributed to
• Displacement: emotions directed at people/animals/things that are not the real
object of your feelings.
• Regression: Person reverts back to previous phase of personality development,
especially strategies that they used to cope earlier in life.
• Denial: Person does not even recognize that something unpleasant is
• Sublimation: Displacement serving a useful purpose, Freud that people did
this for the sake of society.
• Reaction Formation: when threatening unconscious anxiety is transformed
into its opposite in consciousness. Development of Personality: (Fixation is when they get stuck at development
age because challenge is too great).
• Oral Stage (0-1): Get oral gratification (mouth focus of sensation), child
is dependent on others, and the challenge is weaning.
• Anal Stage (2-3): Aware of self (ego development), possible fixations in
personality. Anal expulsive-messy and disorganized personality, Anal
Retentive- holds everything in, obsessive about neatness and cleanliness.
• Phallic Stage (3-6): Time for gender ID and development of superego.
Boys-Oedipus Complex: keenly aware of penis, see fathers as rivals for
mothers affection, wonder why girls don’t have a penis, and fear losing it.
Girls-Penis Envy: Girls think they lost their penis, only way they can get
one back is to identify with mom.
• Latency Stage (end of phallic to puberty): Learning to live in society,
• Genital Stage (puberty strikes): sexual energies reemerges in genitals.
4) Jungian Theory: Differed from Freud on nature of unconscious and influence/strength
• Collective Unconscious: apart of unconscious that has universal
• Archetypes: Common themes about human existence that are universal.
Mandala magic symbolizes the totality of the self and unity of life, and
shadow archetype is the dark side of human nature.
• Confidence is the forward-moving strength of the ego. more than in Frued
• Future goals and desires to fulfill oneself are powerful motivators
• Developed the notion of introversion/extrusion.
Object-Relations School: Need for attachment in early life highlighted the social nature
of human development. …………………………
5) Problems with Psychodynamic Theories:
• Violates principle of falsifiability. It can’t be proved/disproved
• Drawing universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical patients is
• Basing theories of development on retrospective accounts and fallible memories is
6) Unscientific test: popular but objective and not scientifically accurate. Ex: Myers-
Briggs. Does not predict behavior on the hob or in relationships. Scientific Test: Ex: Objective Test (Inventories) that are scientifically valid and useful in
research. Standardized questioners, true/false. Provides info on needs, values, interests,
self-esteem, emotional problems etc.
7) Allport’s Trait theory: Multiple levels of traits give uniqueness. Central/global traits are
characteristic ways of behaving. Everyone has 5-10 traits. Secondary traits are
changeable aspect of personality such as opinions, habits, food, or music.
Cattel’s Factor Analysis of Traits: Used Factor analysis to id underlying traits. This
groups items together so they measure common factors.
5 Fundamental Traits: Stable over a person’s lifetime
• Extroversion vs. Introversion
• Neuroticism (- emotions) vs. Emotional Stability
• Agreeable vs. Antagonism (capacity for friendly relationships or hostile ones)
• Conscientiousness vs. Impulsiveness: responsible vs. undependable, persevering
• Openness to Experience vs. Resistance to new experience
8) Temperament: How you respond to environment in certain ways probably has genetic
Results: When in a stressful mental task, Reactive Kids show increases activity in
sympathetic branch on autonomic nervous system which is associated with physio
arousal. Effect over time, 15% of extremely reactive babies same: 85% become average:
0% become vivacious and fearless.
9) Heritability: uses behavioral geneticists. Highly heritable traits can be modified by env.
Problem: you can’t measure H directly. Families are in the same env so you can’t tell if
it is genes or env.
Experiment: Identical twins (identical genes) vs. fraternal twins (two different eggs).
Separate the twins so no bias between identical and fraternal twins. Genetic influence
strong across groups in same environment, but weaker in different env. Up to 50% of
variation is due to genetic differences.
10) Social-Cognitive Learning Approach to Personality: Traits result in part from your
learning history and your resulting expectations/beliefs. Ex: Both groups study hard.
Good Grades->industrious child. Bad grades, ridiculed -> lazy unmotivated.
This is a learned relationship between Individual (temperament, learned habits, beliefs
and expectations) and the Situation (rewards/punishment, types of opportunities). It’s a
combination of Nature and Nurture.
11) Evidence on Parental Influence: Shared environment of the home has little influence
on personality. Few parents are consistent in rearing children. Once they leave home,
parental influence wanes. Powers of Peers: Two env are home and world outside. When
they clash, peer influence wins out. People want to be accepted by peers more than family. Summary: core personality traits may stem from genetics, but are influenced by
12) Individualistic Cultures: influence on concept of Self sense of self remains stable
Collectivist Culture: Influence on the concept of Self group harmony more important
than the individual. Self is defined in terms of relations. “Who you are related to”
Culture norms Influence on traits: Cleanliness varies by culture. Helpfulness,
American children are the least helpful and most egotistic. Punctuality/tardiness: in North
Europe and America, time is linear and punctuality is valued. In Southern Europe and
America, time is parallel with friends and family superseding appointments.
13)Abraham Maslow (striving for self-actualization): Emphasis on positive aspects of
human nature. The Self-actualized person’s personality development is a progression
toward the state of self-actualization.
Carl Rogers (The fully functional person): tried to understand the fully functional
person who experiences congruence, harmony between their self-image and their true
feelings etc. Unconditional (+) regard reinforces child and withdrawal punishes.
Conditional Regard “Ill love you as long..” Leads to suppression or denial of
personality parts. This leads to Incongruence: low self-regard, defensiveness,
unhappiness, scores high on neuroticism.
Chapter 3: Development over the Life Span
1) Stages of Prenatal development:
• Germinal Stage (0-2 w.): implantation of zygpte. Placenta connected by
• Embryonic Stage (3-8 w.): Embryo develops organs and systems. Testosterone
secreted the anatomically correct male. Most vulnerable stage to problems.
• Fetal Stage (9w.+): Fetus continues to develop organs and systems.
• Father’s Side:
Older fathers: schizophrenia, autism, bipolar
Younger fathers: Premature births, lower birth weights
• Mother’s Side:
German Measles (rubella) causes deafness and other eye, ear, heart
X-rays, radiation, and toxic chemicals casue attention problems and lower
STD cause retardation, blindness, other physical problems Cigarette Smoking: causes miscarriage, premature birth, and other
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): includes smaller size, mental retardation.
2) Physical and Perceptual Abilities:
• Motor Reflexes: Autonomic behaviors that are necessary for survival.
• Perceptual Abilities: All the basic senses are operational but not fully developed.
Initial visual ability=can see about 8 inches. Newborns can also recognize people
on the basis of smell, sight, and sounds.
3) Attachment: Harlow studied infant monkeys with their mothers. He found that monkeys
only went to the hard metal “mother” for food. The rest of the time they went to the cloth
Ainsworth’s: He thought the when mothers were sensitive and responsive, then infants
were secure. Vice vs. holds true. However, he was wrong. Despite mother’s affections,
2/3 of children were securely attached. Insecure attachment could be due to
abandonment/deprivation during the first two years, abuse, neglect, genetic temperament,
and stressful situations in family.
4) Development of Communication:
• Infants starts cooing/crying. Parentese/baby talk help infants acquire language.
• 4-6 month: recognize their names, words spoken with emotion, and sounds of
• 6 months-year: child figures out the sound structure of their native language.
Babbling begins, starts naming at 1, gestures at 11 months as tools for
• 18 months-2 years: telegraphic speech appears, two/three word combos.
Innate Capacity for Language: Across cultures, children go through same development
stages. They combine words in ways that adults, but have overregularizations:
overgeneralizing rules. Adults do not consistently correct children’s grammar. Children
not exposed to language invent their own, and infants can derive linguistic rules from
string of sounds.
5) Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: made of Assimilation: fitting new info
into our present system of knowledge or categories and Accommodation: The child
changes or modifies existing category because of undeniable new info.
• Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2): child learns through actions. Thinking is
coordination of sensory info with bodily motor movements.
• Object Permanence: Understanding that something will continue even if you
cannot see it. Marks beginning of understanding imagery/symbols.
• Preoperational Stage (2-7 yr): Use of symbols/language accelerates. Lacks
operational thinking (reasoning). • Concrete Operations Stage (7-12): can engage in concrete operations, now
understand principles of conservation, reversibly, and cause and effect.
• Formal Operations Stage (12+): can engage in abstract thinking, can reason,
compare/classify, and think about the future.
6) Current View of Cognitive Development:
• Cognitive abilities develop in overlapping waves rather than steps or stages.
• Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget thought
• Children reveal cognitive abilities much earlier than Piaget thought possible.
• Cognitive development is influenced by culture
• Piaget overestimated the cognitive skills of adults
7) Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning: ability to understand right from wrong.
Increases during school years, but so does cheating, lying, cruelty and rationalization.
• Level 1: obey rules because of fear/punishment, and it’s in your self-interest.
• Level 2: Conformity and loyalty to others, understanding of the rule of law.
• Level 3: Develop moral standards based on universal human rights.
8) Psychologists looked at how children learn to regulate emotions/behavior. They learned
that capacity for understanding right from wrong may be inborn. And they asked if moral
sense can be influenced. Depends on the child: temperamentally difficult kids are more
responsive to style of parenting. Easy going do not benefit from good/bad parenting.
• Gender Identity: fundamental sense of maleness or femaleness.
• Gender Typing: Society’s ideas about which stuff is masculine or feminine.
• Sex vs. Gender: Sex is physio/anatomical attributes. Gender is differences that
are learned cultural/psycho attributes.
Development: At 9 months, children can tell m/f faces, 18-20 months child has gender
labels. Once they have learned self as boy/girl, they begin to fall into categories. At 5, the
develop Gender Schema: cog schema of knowledge, beliefs, and metaphors about M/F.
The older they get, the more rigid these roles become. Gender socialization is the process
by which beliefs about appropriate behaviors are instilled in children.
10) Brain Development: prefrontal cortex develops (impulse control a