15213 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Endianness, Extended Precision, Double-Precision Floating-Point Format


Department
School of Computer Science Courses
Course Code
15213
Professor
Bryant Randall
Study Guide
Midterm

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15-213 Midterm Cheat Sheet
1 Bits, Bytes, Integers
C data type 32-bit 64-bit x86-64
char 1 1 1
short 2 2 2
int 4 4 4
long 4 8 8
float 4 4 4
double 8 8 8
long double - - 10/16
pointer 4 8 8
1.1 Shift Operations
Logical right shift fills with 0s, arith-
metic shift fills with most significant
bit.
Unsigned uses logical, signed uses
arithmetic, signed div by 2 rounds to
−∞.
If shift amount nis less than 0 or
more than word size, behavior unde-
fined. Typically, xis shifted by n
mod wwith wword size.
1.2 Word Sizes
• |TMin|= TMax + 1
UMax = 2 ·TMax + 1
#include <limits.h> provides
INT MIN,UINT MAX, etc.
1.3 Signed, Unsigned, Casting
In casting, the bit pattern is main-
tained and reinterpretted.
Casting to larger width takes value of
smaller width, using sign extension.
Casting to smaller with is truncating
bits, similar to modulo.
Constants are defaulted to signed in-
tegers, unless we put a U at the end,
e.g. int x = 0U;.
If there is a mix of signed and un-
signed integers, signed values are
implicitly casted to unsigned, in-
cluding comparison operators, e.g. -1
> 0U.
2 Integers
For unsigned, add/multiply to true
value and then mod by 2w.
Representing data over multiple
bytes has two conventions, big endian
and little endian.
In big endian, intuitive layout, e.g. 01
23 45 67, while in little endian, re-
versed, e.t. 67 45 23 01.
3 Floats
3.1 Representation
Numeric form: (1)sM2Ewhere sig-
nificant Mis normally M[1.0,2.0).
Encoded as s | exp | frac.
Precision options
Single precision (32 bits): 1|8
| 23
Double precision (64 bits): 1 |
11 | 52
Extended precision (80 bits, In-
tel only): 1|15|64
Normalized values (exp 6= 00 . . . 0,
exp 6= 11 . . . 1)
Exponent E=ExpBias where
Exp is the unsigned value of exp
and Bias = 2k11 where kis
the number of exponent bits.
Significand encoded with im-
plied 1, i.e. M= 1.x1x2. . . x`
where x1x2. . . x`is frac.
Denormalized values (exp = 00 . . . 0)
Exponent E= 1 Bias
Significand encoded with im-
plied 0, i.e. M= 0.x1x2. . . x`
where x1x2. . . x`is frac.
Denormalized values (exp = 11 . . . 1)
If frac = 00 . . . 0, .
If frac = 00 . . . 0, NaN.
3.2 Operations
Comparison is essentially the same as
integer comparison, except for NaN,
0 = 0, etc.
When doing computation and round-
ing, round to nearest even.
Multiplication: XOR sign bits, mul-
tiply significand, add exponents, nor-
malize significand.
Addition: align exponents, add, ad-
just.
Casting: double/float int trun-
cates fractional part like rounding to-
wards 0, int double is exact,
int float rounds.
4 Machine Prog: Basics
4.1 Assembly/Machine Code
Programmer-visible state: PC (pro-
gram counter, address of next in-
struction (%rip)), registers, condi-
tion codes.
Memory: code and user data, stack
for supporting procedures.
The lower 4 bytes of %rax are %eax,
divided into %ah | %al.
%rsp is the stack pointer, which has
a special use.
Operations
Move: movq src, dest, takes
different arguments immediate
(e.g. $400), register (e.g. %rax),
memory (8 consecutive bytes at
address) (e.g. (%rax)). You
cannot move from memory to
memory.
Pointer arithmetic can be
done by, D(Rb,Ri,S), which
computes Mem[Reg[Rb] +
S*Reg[Ri] + D] where D
{1,2,4}and S∈ {1,2,4,8}.
Load effective address: leaq
src, dest takes address mode
expression and sets a register
dest to hold the computation
result.
Arithmetic: generally, addq
src, dest which does dest =
dest + src.
5 Machine Prog: Con-
trol
5.1 Condition Codes
Set as side effect of other instructions,
but it is not set by leaq.
CF (carry flag for unsigned), SF (sign
flag for signed), ZF (zero flag), OF
(overflow for signed).
Compare: cmpq src, dest is like
computing dest - src without
setting destination. CF set if
carry from most significant bit,
ZF if src == dest, SF set if
(dest - src) < 0, OF set if signed
overflow.
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