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[HIST 1220] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (86 pages long!)

Course Code
HIST 1220
Study Guide

of 86
Community College of Rhode Island
HIST 1220
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SEPTEMBER. 2, 2016
The period just after the civil War known as reconstruction. Reconstructing the war-torn
nation. And especially. To reconstruct the lives of the. Four million slaves that were
emancipated as a result of the civil war.
Early on during the reconstruction period it appeared that reconstruction was going to
be a meaningful, radical time period. Especially for those former slaves. In 1865, a thirteenth
amendment was ratified that officially ended slavery in the United States. A few years later in
1868, a fourteenth amendment granted full citizenship rights to all natural born American
citizens including those of African decent. 1870, a fifteenth amendment came into play which
granted African Americans the right to vote. which stated the right to vote could not be denied,
based on, "race, color or previous condition of servitude." So highlighted by those three
amendments it appeared reconstruction was going to be meaningful, even radical time for the
former slaves.
However during the 1870s, the second half of reconstruction, things quickly spiraled
downwards and reconstruction ended up being what modern day historian, Eric Foner has
labeled "America's Unfinished Revolution." This became an unfinished revolution in the
following four areas:
Through a process of redemption. Redemption being, over time the old guard
democrats, the ones who had lead their states out of the union beginning the civil war
and who had lead the confederate war effort against the union during the war, were
able to come back into political power. Redeeming their states of republican control.
More over time republicans lead by both white and black southerns, come into political
control. But beginning in the early 1870s, the old guard conservative racist democrats
were able to reassert themselves by acts of intimidation, violence, through terrorist
organizations like the KKK. Redeeming their states from republican control. KKK stepped
up their actives just prior to Election Day, just a little reminder to potential black voters
and sympathetic white voters that they should vote for the candidate that they support.
Which kept many black and white voters away from the polls because voting was then, a
public act.
A northern retreat from reconstruction. That retreat being, in the aftermath of the
thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments being ratified, the northerners
believed that their work for the south was done. So congress went back into its north
relationship with Americans that being a lazy fare relationship, hands-off. Back then the
federal government had very little interaction, very little contact into he daily lives of
Americans. One could argue that the only way there federal government enacted the
lives of Americans was through delivering the mail. Very different than today. Prior to
the civil war, northerners embraced a free labor ideology, that being stress on the
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