[CHDV 20100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 13 pages long Study Guide!

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CHDV 20100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 4 (Frankfort)
Monday, January 23, 2017
10:05 PM
Discussion Question:
How to protect human subjects?
Ethics in social research:
protection
informed consent to participate
other issues (self-determination, privacy, dignity)
Cost-Benefit Framework used as guideline.
Social Scientists are observers and participants in the research process. Researchers in contact with
complex and demanding sociopolitical environment that influences their research decisions.
Must follow a set of ethical guidelines.
Examples of studies where ethics were broken:
Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1957-1972)
o Male African Americans were suffering from syphilis. Researchers never offered cure
and neither asked for their consent.
Study by Stanley Milgram
o "teacher" and "student". Teacher delivered electric shock for each answer student got
wrong. (No shock ever really given, student only yelled). teachers under false
impression they were inflicting pain (unethical b/c participants were deceived)
Falsified Data
Informed Consent (p. 67) consists of four elements (p. 68):
competence
voluntarism
full information
comprehension
Privacy (p. 70)
sensitivity to information
setting in which observations are made
dissemination of information
o ability to match personal information with identity of research participants
income
Privacy can be voluntarily relinquished.
Anonymity
when researchers or other persons cannot identify any specific bit of info. with particular
participant.
o one procedure: don't request names.
Confidentiality:
researchers will not reveal information publicly (info. linking to participant)
one of the most controversial information to keep confidential is when information is
subpoenaed by authorities.
o deletion of identifiers
o crude report categories
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being very broad in categories. County instead of neighborhood, birth year instead
of exact birthdate
o micro aggregation
o error inoculation
Professional Codes of Ethics:
Institutional Review Boards
o committee with academic institution that exists to review research projects involving
human subjects
o federally mandated
o Two Functions:
ensure human subjects are not coerced, elect to participate in research by
informed consent
ensure human subjects not placed at risk
Ethics used as safeguard for research participants and also necessary to preserve integrity of
science and scientific community.
The Code of Ethics:
Different codes for different fields of research (anthropologists, political scientists,
psychologists, etc.) but all follow same guidelines, say same information
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