BIOL 211 Midterm: Study guide Part II for Exam I S17

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 211
Charles G Brooke

Biol. 211 Exam I February 17, 2017 Study guide Part II for Exam I 43. Bacterial pathogen Disease caused/ Major concern Salmonella enteritidis • Food poisoning • Fever, vomiting, diarrhea E. coli O157 • HUS • Bloody diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal cramps, and vomiting Listeria monocytogenes • Serious and sometimes fatal infections in children, frail, or elderly people or compromise immune systems • Flu like symptoms in healthy people Treponema pallidum • Mycoplasma pneumoniae • Chlamydia trachomatis • Inflammation of the urethra • Headache, fever, and muscle aches Neisseria gonorrhoea • Gonorrhea • Clostridum tetani • Clostridium botulinum • Clostridium difficile • Clostridium perfringens • Bacillus anthracis • Mycobacterium tuberculosis • Mycobacterium leprae • Vibrio cholerae • 44. T/F E. coli and Salmonella both contain Lipid A • True 45. What are the steps in the Gram stain? Explain why Gram + stain purple and Gram negative stain pink. What can cause a false Gram + reaction? A false Gram – reaction? 46. Organism X is Gram + and organism Y is Gram -. What is the structural difference between them? Draw the structure of a Gram + and Gram – cell external to the cell membrane. Indicate the biochemical make-up of each part. What is the biochemical make up (three parts) of the lipopolysaccharide? Importance of Lipid A to human health? What is the endotoxin? 8 47. Consider E. coli 0157, E. coli 0111 and E. coli 0104. What is different in these three organisms? • They all are the same organisms but with different sequences of sugars 48. What are two functions of the bacterial cell wall? 49. Draw the structure of the peptidoglycan (components only- NAM-NAG-NAM -NAG etc… and amino acids [tetrapeptide]) and show how cross linkages between the NAM-NAG backbone strands occurs. 50. Be able to explain the effect of lysozyme, penicillin, cephalosporin, carbapenems a
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