Exam 4 Study Guide
Lipids part 2
• Lipid digestion.
o Role of Bile Emulsifies the fat
o Enzyme used to digest lipids Gastric Lipase
o What organ does the majority of lipid digestion take place in? Small Intestine
o 4 types Chylomicron, Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), Low Density Lipoprotein
(LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
o What are the 4 components of a lipoprotein? Protein, Triglyceride, Cholesterol,
o Where each is produced Chylo – Small Intestine after a meal, VLDL- Liver, LDL-from
VLDL, HDL - Liver
o Function, what they transport and to where? Transport dietary triglyceride to adipose
and muscle, fat soluble vitamins A D E K to adipose, and eventually cleared by the
Liver Transport endogenous triglyceride to adip ose and muscle Transport cholesterol
from liver to cells, “bad cholesterol” increase risk of CVD Transport cholesterol from
cells to liver “Reverse cholesterol transport”, Indicator of low risk CVD
o Effect on health (LDL High, HDL Low)
• Normal blood lipid va lues TC;171 HDL;30 LDL;110 TG;155 and cardiac risk ratio calculation
Total Cholesterol divided by HDL >5=High, 5=Average risk, <5= Low (like on the case study)
• Statistics on mortality.
o What percent of Americans die from all types of CVD- 50% CHD- 25% (heart disease)?
• Define coronary heart disease - plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries , atherosclerosis -
disease in which lipid-containing plaques build up inside artery walls , hypertension -
abnormally high blood pressure , stroke - Blood flow to part of the brain is interrupted or
severely reduced, heart failure - The heart no longer effectively pumps blood , peripheral
vascular disease - Narrowing or blockage of vessels that carry blood to the extremities (not
the heart or brain).
• Understand how atherosclerosis develops. Damage occurs to the interior of artery -
inflammation, Plaques are deposited in the damaged endothelium
• Major risk factors for CVD, controllable – Smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, inactivity,
obesity, diabetes, stress, excessive alcohol, and non-controllable – Age, Gender, Family
• Special considerations concerning women and heart disease.
o Statistics from power point – how does smoking affect your risk? 2-4 times than Non-
o In general, why is heart disease more fatal in women? They experience different
• Define essential hypertension - high blood pressure that doesn't have a known secondary cause .
Can it be treated with diet and exercise? exercising at least 30 minutes a day , eating a low-
sodium, low-fat diet that’s rich in potassium and fiber (don’t increase your potassium intake
without your doctor’s permission if you have kidney problems), losing weight if you are
overweight • What is average blood pressure 120 over 80, borderline hypertension 140 over 90?
• Why is hypertension called the “silent killer”? most patients with high blood pressure have no
symptoms to alert them to the elevated pressure.
• What type of damage does hypertension cause in the body (complications)? Aortic aneurysm,
Kidney Failure, Stroke, heart attack, Enlarged left ventricle, atherosclerosis
• How is exercise beneficial for CVD and Htn? How does it help reduce your risk? Decreases
blood pressure, improve cholesterol ratio, reduce clotting and inflammation, thin blood,
reduce body fat, strengthen cardiovascular system
• What are the two types of stroke? – Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Which one is more common? –
Ischemic What happens in each of them? Ischemic - artery to the brain is blocked.
Hemorrhagic- blood vessel inside the brain bursts and leaks blood i