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PSYC 395 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Social Influence, Fundamental Attribution Error, Cognitive Dissonance


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 395
Professor
Dory A Schachner
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSYC 395

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Social psych: how people think influence and relate to one another
Our interaction with each other and how it happens, why we do what we do
Attitudes and beliefs
Conformity and independence
Love and hate
Sociology: people in groups and societies
Research
Questions, responses
Relatively naturalistic
Which variable is the causal one?
Example: maritial dissatisfaction leads to depression or vise versa?
The directionality problem
Maybe the relation is not causal at all, perhaps due to third variable
Example: height and weight are strongly related, does one cause the other?
The third variable problem
Limitations
Correlationhy7 method
The only way to determine causality is to use the experimental method
The researcher randomly assigns participants to diff conditions and ensures these conditions
are identical except for the independent variable (the one thought to have a causal effect on
people's responses).
Independent: the variable that hypothesized to influence the dep variable
Dependent: the variable the is hypothesized to depend on the ind. Variable
Making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent
variable
Accomplishes by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning
people to different experimental conditions
Internal validity in experiments
The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other sitiations and to
other people
Outside the study: external validitiy: does the same thing happen in other setings?
Other labs vs. everyday setting
Insdie the styd: interal validity: was ther esearch dne "right"?
External validity
The experimental method: answering causal question
Methods
To create realistic, engaging situations, social puschologists frequently face an ehtical dilemma
For scientic reason we want our exp to resemble th real world
But want to avoid casuign our participants undue and unnecessary stress. Discomfort, or
unpleasent
Ethical Issues:
Social Psych
Friday, August 26, 2016
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How we think about the social world
Social Cognition: how people think about themselves and the social world, or more specifically, how
people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions
Ex: police shooting black males in assumption that they have guns
Quick and automatic "without thinking," without consciously deliberately one's own thoughts,
perception, assumptions
1.
Controlled thinking that is effortful and deliberate, pausing to think about self and environment,
carefully selecting the right course of action
2.
Imagine trying to function if we have to think about all the stimulus we are exposed to at the same
time.
Information overload
Ignore sensation: making some info automatic
Automatic thinking: thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
Ex: driving to school everyday
Stereotypes
Typically very useful for helping us organized and make sense of the world an to
fill in the gaps of our knowledge
Important when we encounter info that can be interpreted in a number of
ways - reduced ambiguity
The function of schemes: why do we have them?
Attention- schemas act as filters, irrelevant info not focused on
Info that fits in your schema given greater weight in processing, more
likely to be put into memory
Encoding: putting info into memory
Recosntruct memories to be consistent with our schemas
Retrieval: schemas give us an efficient way for us to get memory, info that fits
in - confirmation bias
Schemas exert their influence at three key points during info processing
Some schemas are constantly active
i)
Past experience
1.
Current goals
2.
Recent experiences
3.
Accessibility: the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of
people's minds and are therefore likely to be used when we are making judgments
about the social world
Schemas: mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world
around themes or subjects and that influence the info people notice, think about, and
remember (mental categories)
On automatic pilot: low-effort thinking
Two kinds of social cognition
Social Cognition
Monday, August 29, 2016
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