CH 2240- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 33 pages long!)

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Clemson U
CH 2240
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chemistry
Chapter 1: Electronic Structure and Bonding Acids and Bases
Organic Compounds compounds that contain carbon
Why is carbon so important? location on periodic table
o Center of second row neither gives up nor receives electrons very
easily it shares them instead
1.1 The Structure of an Atom
Protons, neutrons, electrons
Neutral atom same number of protons as electrons
Atomic number number of protons in the nucleus
Mass number sum of protons and neutrons
o All atoms of the same element have the same number of protons but
not necessarily the same mass number (b/c number of neutrons could
change)
Isotopes same atomic number but different mass numbers
Atomic weight average mass of its atoms
Molecular weight sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the
molecule
1.2 How the Electrons in an Atom Are Distributed
Electrons have wavelike properties
Quantum mechanics using mathematical questions to characterize motion
of an electrons around a nucleus
Wave equations tell us the energy and volume of space around the nucleus
where an electron is most likely to be found
Electron shells surround nucleus
o Shells contain orbitals
o The closer the atomic orbital is to the nucleus, the lower its energy
o Each shell contains one s orbital. Second and higher contain three
degenerate p orbitals (orbitals that have the same energy)
3rd and higher 5 degenerate d orbitals
4th and higher 7 degenerate f orbitals
Each orbital can hold 2 electrons max
Ground-state electronic configuration e-s are in lowest possible energy
orbitals (vs. excited state)
Electrons will go into lowest possible energy orbitals to reduce repulsion
Core electrons (inner-most do not participate in chemical bonding) vs.
valence electrons (outer-most)
1.3 Ionic and Covalent Bonds
Octet rule atom is trying to get 8 e-s in outermost shell (except hydrogen)
Electronegative readily acquire electrons (become negative)
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Ionic Bonds are formed by the attraction between ions of opposite charge
o Results from electrostatic attractions (ions of opposite charge)
Covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons
o Shares electrons
o Hydrogen can lose its only electron results in a proton
o H can gain one more electron results in a hydride ion
Polar Covalent bonds
o When e-s are shared equally non polar covalent bond
o Atoms with different electronegativity polar covalent bond
Partial negative (more electronegative) vs. partial positive
dipole moment measured in debye (difference in
electronegativity)
1.4 How the Structure of a Compound is Represented
Lewis Structures
o Lewis Structures
o Formal charge difference between number of valence electrons an
atom has when it is not bonded to any other atoms and the number it
owns when it is bonded cut number of bonded e-s in half, add to
lone pairs)
o Carbocation vs. carbanion (contains positively/negatively formal
charges on a carbon atom)
o Radical atom with a single unpaired electron
Kekulé Structures
o Bonding electrons are drawn as lines and lone pairs are left out
entirely
Condensed Structures
o Omit some or all covalent bonds and listing atoms bonded to a
particular carbon (ex. CH3Br)
1.5 Atomic Orbitals
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle precise location and momentum of an
atomic particle cannot be simultaneously determined
1s orbital spherical shaped fits inside the 2s orbital, which is the same
shape but larger
Probability of finding electrons at a node is 0 this is due to the wavelike
properties of electrons (think of guitar string example)
P orbitals teardrop/doorbell shaped a nodal plane between them
(probably of finding an electron there = 0)
o Remember 3 degenerate p orbitals all fit together perpendicularly
(symmetrical about x axis (px), y axis (py), and z axis (pz))
1.6 An Introduction to Molecular Orbital Theory
Molecular Orbital Theory assigns electrons to an orbital
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Document Summary

1. 1 the structure of an atom: neutral atom same number of protons as electrons, atomic number number of protons in the nucleus, mass number sum of protons and neutrons. Isotopes same atomic number but different mass numbers: atomic weight average mass of its atoms, molecular weight sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the. 1. 3 ionic and covalent bonds: octet rule atom is trying to get 8 e-s in outermost shell (except hydrogen, electronegative readily acquire electrons (become negative) valence electrons (outer-most) Ionic bonds are formed by the attraction between ions of opposite charge: results from electrostatic attractions (ions of opposite charge, shares electrons electronegativity, polar covalent bonds, covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons. 1. 8 how a double bond is formed: the bonds in ethene: ch2ch2 has a double bond between the two carbon atoms, 3 orbitals are hybridized turns into three sp2 orbitals plus one extra p.

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