[PKSC 1020] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 14 pages long Study Guide!

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Clemson
PKSC 1020
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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HISTORY OF PACKAGING PKSC 1020
1. DEFINITION OF PACKAGING
A. It is a field that involves the use of materials, methods, and machinery (the
three M’s) to develop and produce the packages that protect and preserve a
product, help market the product and instruct the consumer in its proper use”
2. EARLIEST PACKAGING
A. Consider what life was like in ancient days
B. Packaging provided simple function of containment
i. Ex. Woven grass baskets, shells, wooden bowls, animal hides and skins
C. Notable developments in Ancient Man-made Packages (be able to put these on a
timeline)
i. 3000 B.C. Egyptins learned to blow and cast glass
ii. 105 A.D. paper invented in China
iii. c. 1500 Cork Stopper used for bottles such as wine (First evidence of
protective packaging)
1. helps protect liquid from bacteria
iv. next major developments occurred during Industrial Revolution
D. Notable Developments During the Industrial Revolution
i. 1809 Nicholas Appert canning process
ii. 1810 Peter Durand develops “tin canister
iii. 1868 - John Hyatt patent for colloid, leading to the development of
cellulose, first “plastic”.
iv. 1877 Quaker Oats first used the “Quaker Man” to represent their product
v. 1895 Toothpaste first offered in tubes
1. first option of convenience packages
vi. 1897 first major use of paperboard for National Biscuit Company “Uneeda”
Biscuit product
vii. late 1800 early 1900’s first major use of graphics to help sell the product
E. End of Industrial Revolution and Around WWII
i. Movement from bulk packaging to retail packaging
ii. Illustrates how social changes interact with packaging developments
iii. 1930 polyethylene discovered in England, eventually one of the most
commonly used packaging plastics
F. Late 20th Century Packaging
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2
i. 1950’s to 1960’s – convenience and brand expansion
ii. 1970’s improvements in distribution and material handling
iii. 1980’s improvements in barrier films and microwave packaging
iv. 1990’s environmental awareness and market globalization
v. notable developments in late 20th century packaging
1. 1954 polypropylene used for packaging
2. 1960 1970
laws clarified and improved
3. 1987 New Jersey enacts first statewide recycling law for plastic
containers
4. 1990 nutritional labeling and education act
G. Review of Timelines
i. Earliest (unrecorded dates)
ii. Ancient Man-made (3000 B.C. - 1500)
iii. Industrial Revolution Developments (1900’s to 1900’s)
iv. Late 20th Century (post WWII to present)
3. IMPORTANCE OF PACKAGING TO SOCIETY
A. Essential for us to have and get what we want
B. Reduces waste
i. In underdeveloped countries, 50% of food produced never reaches
consumers
ii. U.S. only 3% for processed food and 10-15% for fresh is wasted
4. FUTURE TRENDS
A. Away from glass and metal towards plastics and composites
B. Away from rigid toward flexible and semi-rigid
C. Metallized instead of foil laminates
D. Tamper evident and anti-theft devices
E. More informative
i. Ex. OTC drug packages
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