PHYS-2400 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Forced Convection, Buoyancy, Climatology

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7 Feb 2017
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Clemson
PHYS 2400
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PHYS 2400, Chapter1
Atmosphere a mixture of gas molecules, suspended solid and liquid particles, and
falling precipitation
Meteorology the study of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather
Climatology the study of the same elements as meteorology, but on a long-term scale
Weather short term phenomena
Climate long term patterns
Scientific method
o Framework for answering scientific questions
Question
Hypothesis
Prediction
Experiment
Analysis
Conclusion
Scientific theory a hypothesis that has not been proven false using the scientific
method.
Residence time the average length of time that individual molecules of a given
substance remain in the atmosphere
Homosphere
o The lowest 50 miles of the atmosphere
o Vertical motion in this area is more important than gravitational settling
Heterosphere
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o All atmosphere above 50 miles above sea level
o Gases segregate according to their molecular weight
Permanent gases found everywhere in nearly the same proportion
o Nitrogen
Unreactive gas
Accounts for 78% of the volume of all permanent gases
Accounts for 75.5% of the mass of all permanent gases
Long residence time
o Oxygen
Accounts for 21% of atmospheric volume
Accounts for 23% of atmospheric mass
Occurs in paired atoms (diatomic oxygen)
6,000 year residence time
o Nitrogen and oxygen account for 99% of all permanent gases
o Other permanent gases
Argon
Neon
Helium
Krypton
Xenon
hydrogen
Variable gases gases whose distribution in the atmosphere is uneven in time and space
o Water vapor
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