Life 102 Exam I Review Session.docx

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Colorado State University
Life Science
LIFE 102

Life 102 Exam I Review Session For the first ten minutes of the review session Dr. Bjostad went over slides/information that would be very pertinent to the exam: Chapter One Know the three domains of life Know which domains contain prokaryotic cells and which ones contain eukaryotic cells Chapter Two Know the four essential elements of life (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon) What trace elements are The four types of bonds (covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals interactions) Chapter Three Four properties of water that facilitates an environment for life The specific heat of water The definition of calorie The pH equation What are acidic solutions and basic solutions Chapter Four Identifying the three isomers Knowing the seven functional groups Chapter Five The four classes of macromolecules Chapter Six The organelles of a cell, know their function and which cell (plant or animal) they are found in: ER Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Lysosome Vacuole Mitochondrion Chloroplast Peroxisome Chapter Seven The structure, components and function of the cell membrane such as: Peripheral proteins, integral proteins, glycoproteins, carbohydrates, the cytoskeleton, ECM Passive transport (diffusion, facilitated diffusion) Active transport (pumps) Questions from students In class you (Dr. Bjostad) mentioned that the environment in mitochondrion is very volatile. Does that mean the cell constantly has to make new mitochondrion? Yes, the cell is constantly making new mitochondrion to replace the ones that die/gets used up Can you explain the difference of cis and trans for geometric isomers? Trans mean opposite sides of a double bond, cis means same side of a double bond What are the structures of proteins? Primary: just sequence of amino acids Secondary: hydrogen bonding occurs Tertiary: multiple types of bonds occur Quaternary-multiple polypeptides joined together What is the difference between hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions? Electrons spend time in some parts of an atom/molecule more than other parts of an atom/molecule. A delta minus means the electrons spend a lot more time there (this can be seen in the slide with ammonia and water in chapter two) and this atoms are referred to as electronegative. In hydrogen bonding, hydrogens of one molecule are attracted to the electronegative atoms of another molecule. With Van der Waals interactions are very weak and it’s when electrons of one atom is attracted to the nucleus of another atom nearby. The only reason this is a force at all is strength in numbers. Multiple Van der Waals interactions are necessary to form a significant force. What exactly are ribosomes? They are the factories where proteins are made. They use the information from mRNA to make a finished item, a protein (peptide), but we’ll cover this later part in subsequent chapters. Just know the first sentence for this exam. Is there going to be a picture of the functional groups on the test, or is
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