Titer, antigen, immunoglobulin, agglutination tests, blood typing, Rhesus

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Microbio, Immun, Pathology
MIP 343
Alan Schenkel

4 March Agglutination – aggregation by antibody Classical test of antibody specificity and titer (concentration) Active – specifically and directly causes aggregation of insoluble particles (needs to be big particle) Passive – often latex beads with chemical attachment of soluble antigen Titer – a rough measurement of the concentration of antibodies vs a given antigen (or antigens for larger particles) What is an Antigen? Any protein/lipid/carbohydrate is a typical antigen Foreign or self antigens – tolerance vs autoimmunity A single protein of reasonable length can have multiple recognizable sites which are called epitopes Must be processed by cells (APCs) and presented to lymphocytes (B, T and NK) Five kinds of immunoglobulin IgD – on mature B cells, unknown function IgM – on “maturing” B cells, pentameric form, part of BCR IgG – IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3, IgG4, ~70% Ig in blood IgG1, 3 – activate complement, bind Fc-receptors IgA – 2 most common in serum, monomer/dimer forms, sweat, milk, other secretions IgE – rare in serum, increase with allergy, found stuck on mast cells, anti-Helminthic Ig Some common agglutination tests Pathogen exposure/”serotyping” Salmonella vs. Campylobacter HIV ABO/Rhesus blood antigens 90% population + Blood transfusion Hemolytic disease of newborn Rh-negative mother’s antibodies vs. Rh-positive second child Autoimmune Anti-DNA Anti-immune cells (esp. PMN) Anti-sheep antibodies (IgM) Blood Typing and Karl Landsteiner In 1901 Karl Landsteiner demonstrated the existence of blood group antigens on human red blood cells as well as antibodies directed against those antigens in human sera. Blood was collected from members of his laboratory staff. He then separated the red blood cells from the serum, and then studied the results of mixing serum and red blood cells from different individuals. He discovered that some sera could agglutinate the red blood cells of some individuals but not others. He realized that individuals could be grouped. Group A individuals had an antigen, called A, on their red blood cells and antibodies to another antigen, called B, in their serum. Group B individuals had antigen B on their red blood cells and antibodies to antigen A in their serum. A third group, called O, had neither A nor B on their red blood cells but had both anti-A and anti-B in their sera. Some time later, individuals were described who had both A and B antigens on their red blood cells but no antibodies to A or B in their sera. This group was called AB. Genotype Blood group Antigens on Serum antibodies
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