PSY 250 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Royal Institute Of Technology, Chlordiazepoxide, A Priori And A Posteriori

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CSU
PSY 250
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1-17-17 RM
Saturday, January 21, 2017
6:09 PM
Sciences
-Astronomy
-Biology
-Chemistry
-Physics
-Psychology
Psychology
-studies human behavior
-uses the SAME approach as other sciences
What is Science?
Science
-Process to understand how the world works and how it came to be
-Not just collecting "facts" or just describing natural world
-No certainty in science, only degrees of probability (likelihood)
Science is not proof
Science is not certainty
Science is not belief
3 fundamental features of science:
1. Systematic Empiricism
a. Empiricism = observational learning
b. Systematic = order, details, organization, planning
2. Empirical Questions
a. Asking questions that can be answered
3. Adds to knowledge base
Science has 4 goals:
1. Description
2. Explanation
3. Prediction
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4. Control
Description
-The goal is to describe a phenomena
-What happens?
-How do people behave?
-How do people differ from one another?
Explanation
-Goal is to explain behavior or mental process
-Why does it happen?
-Why do people respond differently to the same situation?
Prediction
-Goal is to predict a person's (or a group of individuals) behavior or
thoughts
-When will a person behave that way?
Which person will act this way?
Control
-Goal is to build a theory that can account for all aspects of the topic in
such a way that the scientist can influence the behavior or mental
processes
-All components of science are aimed at understanding the phenomena
such that a scientist has control over the topic being studied
So…What is science?
-A set of methods we use to answer our questions
-Identifying a problem to study
-Developing hypotheses and study to test
-Conducting research
-Collecting data and analyzing results
-Disseminating results
Overall, the goal is to contribute to theory.
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