Chapter 8.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 100
Professor
Barbara Lasic

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Chapter 8 Race and Ethnic Group Stratification 03/24/2014 Race and Ethnic Groups The concept of race Race: a group identified by society because of certain biologically inherited physical characteristics Racial classifications have been based on different combinations of characteristics Race categories are defined by society, often based on what is convenient for the dominant group Racist doctrines lack any scientific basis Symbolic Interaction Analysis  The Social Construction of Race If people believe something is real, it is real in its consequences People believe race categories are real, which has real consequences: People use race categories to classify themselves and others based on physical characteristics The idea of race expanded from physical differences to psychological and moral differences The idea of psychological and moral race differences has been used to justify discriminatory treatment Ethnic Groups Ethnic groups:  membership is based on shared cultural heritage, often connected with national or geographic identity The term “ethnic” includes most minorities and avoids problems of the term “race” Some groups inhabit ethnic enclaves Ethnicity is defined in part by the government  Census categories encourage diverse groups to think of themselves as parts of a larger category, or  panethnicity (e.g., Asian, Hispanic) Biracial and Multiracial Populations: Race is a social construct that can change  Many countries are now multiracial due to migration The U.S. accepts more immigrants than any other country; 16% of the population is foreign born Many individuals are now multiracial In the 2000 Census, 7 million or 2.3% of the U.S. population selected two or more racial categories Yet the legacy of the “race” concept remains Minority groups are characterized by: Distinguishable by features­ e.g. appearance, language, religion Excluded or denied full participation in economic, political, and other institutions Less access to power, resources, prestige Are stereotyped, ridiculed, condemned, or defamed, which justifies poor treatment Develop collective identities, communities, and institutions to insulate themselves Determined by history and ideology A group that is a minority in one time or place may be a dominant group in other times and places Dominant groups are not always the numerical majority Ethnic and racial groups are the most common minority groups Stereotyping is the categorization of large numbers of people by prejudiced individuals.  Prejudice are attitudes that prejudge a group, usually negative and not based on facts. Discrimination refers to differential treatment and harmful actions against minorities that occurs when  prejudiced attitudes are manifested into actions. Individual discrimination  is action taken against minority group members which can take the form of  exclusion, avoidance, or violence Institutional discrimination  intentional and unintentional actions engrained in the normal or routine  part of the way an organization operates that have consequences that restri
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