Internation Organizations.doc

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Columbia University
International Affairs
INAF U6139

International Organization: part of governance. Problem could not solved by state is issue of → 1648 establishment of state. State sovereignty with its borders.(terrritoriality) → non intervention of internal affairs → external – self defense : had right to defense. │1648 │1815 Vienna congress │ 1871 Unification │WW1 │1938 Munich Agreement │ 1939 WW2 1815 Vienna Congress: - concert of europe. Work together to prevent war, to prevent conflict between small powers. Balance between great powers. 1871 German and Italian Unification: - destroyed balanca of power. Tension in europe. Colony crisis. 1919 WW1: - 14 points of Wilson: International Organizations → collective security(herhangi bir devlet savasa kalkıstıgında digerleri bunu engelleyecek) → League of Nations - Versailles Treaty: dimilitarization of Germany After WW2 collective security’nin yürüyemedigi anlasıldı. LoF basarısız oldu. UN kuruldu. - a track of system 1) Security Council: veto powers 2) General Assembly: small powers are advisory. Global Governence: - states can not solve that problems alone. Need to cooperate. - actors: states + non-state actors: IGOs + NGOs + individuals Alliance: common goal/pursue/purpose/interest. Unite forces. Realists: international relations need to governence ►Government(backed by) ►Governence(backed by) - formal authority - common goals - concerns not only states. NGOs, IGOs, MNCs - hierarchy Pieces of Global Governence: - cooperate, solve problems. - int. Law or rules.(the hague netherlands) - norms(or ‘soft law’) standards of behaviour. Social interaction → identifiying Behave out of the norms: out of community. Us vs them(other). - int. Regimes(continuous and predictible) → rules, norms, decision making procedures where actor interests converge(birlesmek) to govern a certain problem. e.g. nuclear non-proliferation regime: (prevent-spread of weapons of mass destruction(nuclear, chemical, bio weapons) treaties, agreements, convention) kitle imha silahlarının önlenmesi. - UN, IAEA: peaceful nuclear energy. NSG(nuclear supply group), CTBT-O: inter governmental organizations. IGOs: (neo-neo debates) NGOs: International Organizations 1 - at least 3 states - supply experts, background, knowledge - formal agreement - transnational - state interest represented - provide direction of policy, background info - ad hoc arrangments - global conferences - sustainable development Actors in Global Governence: - states : 1) great powers – key actors, leadership, culture exporter(cocacola) 2) middle powers – soft power, can apply political pressure → diplomacy.(not militiral) South Africa, India, Japan, Canada, Brasil, Arjantine, Australia. 2000’de NPT ile ilerleme gösterdiler. Güney Afrika, brezilya ve Arjantin Non nuclear weapon state treaty’i imzaladılar. 3) small powers – conform, make coalitions to influence. ıntergovernmental organizations. E.g. NAM, NAC(new agenda coal)→ work together. - IGOs - NGOs - individuals - experts - MNCs ♦ Since 70s détente: new issues on agenda ♦ Oil crisis: NIEO – new economic order, EC(friendly relations with middle east). North started to care about South. ♦ Environment, Gender ♦ Need for nuclear energy, anti nuclear movement ♦ Publis movements in Europe & US; civil society organisations reached to government; NGOs were established. ‡ Prosedures to solve problems between IGOs and states. ‡ UNSG send representetive for negotiations, put pressure on, for peaceful settlement. E.g. Cyprus. ‡ Special representetives they may key actors. ‡ NGOs experts: Specisif issue / purpose, Technicalities, they have time to learn. E.g. global warming; we need to use CO2 emission, unleaded gas, translate international legislation, subsdize unleaded gas. ‡ MNCs: corporate interest, Put pressure on politics, NGO talepleri onların çıkarlarıyla çatısıyor. Devlete baskı yapıyorlar degismesi için. Sign not ratify. ‡ Why do we need global governance in post C.W? New issues ♦ Weak states political problems(ethnic, border) Economic problems (need funds to survive economically) * inter ethnic – intra state conflict ♦ Terrorism (international, transnational criminal Networks) - needs funds, ideology, supporters. e.g Asala supported by France. After the event in Orly Airport it cut its support. - ideology transferred to apocalyptic war, romantic change in the world, system to change. Belief system. - discriminatory(ayrımcı) e.g 1995 Japan/ Tokyo subway attack with chemical weapon illicit(yasadısı) traficking(smuggling) of arms, drugs, human arms became dangerous after CW. International Organizations 2 ♦ End of CW = collapse of SU → Idle(bos duran) lying nuclear, chemical, bio weapons. → Unemplyoed scientist: attractive to aspirant states(Pakistan, N.Korea, Iraq, Syria) Terrorism Smuggling Proliferation of WPD - weak states (weapons of mass destruction. Nuclear, bio weapons, ballistic missiles) - tax border controls ♦ Human Rights(late 1980s) - humanitarian intervention (peace operations). State should accept, give its consent. Devlet bu duruma karsıysa ya da onaylayacak durumda degilse(not able to) uluslar arası organizasyon kuvvetlerini gönderebilir) - UN mandate: affirmative vote of P-5 (realist) - ethnic/ intra state conflict - nation_building tasks post_conflict reconstruction. (mission → military + police forces + election observes + NGOs) - müdehale edilecek devletle arasında bag olan ülke(dini, kültürel) avantaj saglar. ♦ Globalization - spread democracy, free market, liberal values(kantian liberalism). Democracies do not g oto war with each other. - widen the zone of peace - Information & Communication Technologies: created mass media → www → effect perceptions → state policy. - transnational issues. E.g environmental, pollution, epidemics, terrorism, proliferation of WMD. Input of international organizations. ♦ Sovereignty - CW destroyed it. - internal autonomy(legitimate use of force) + extorial authority → right to defend - challange to legal sy
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