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INAF U6139 Study Guide - Common Foreign And Security Policy, Complex Interdependence, Frankfurt School

International Affairs
Course Code
INAF U6139

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International Organization: part of governance. Problem could not solved by state
is issue of
1648 establishment of state. State sovereignty with its borders.(terrritoriality)
non intervention of internal affairs
external – self defense : had right to defense.
1648 1815 Vienna congress 1871 Unification WW1 1938 Munich
Agreement 1939 WW2
1815 Vienna Congress:
- concert of europe. Work together to prevent war, to prevent conflict between
small powers. Balance between great powers.
1871 German and Italian Unification:
- destroyed balanca of power. Tension in europe. Colony crisis.
1919 WW1:
- 14 points of Wilson: International Organizations collective security(herhangi
bir devlet savasa kalkıstıgında digerleri bunu engelleyecek)League of Nations
- Versailles Treaty: dimilitarization of Germany
After WW2 collective security’nin yürüyemedigi anlasıldı. LoF basarısız oldu. UN
- a track of system
1) Security Council: veto powers
2) General Assembly: small powers are advisory.
Global Governence:
- states can not solve that problems alone. Need to cooperate.
- actors: states + non-state actors: IGOs + NGOs + individuals
Alliance: common goal/pursue/purpose/interest. Unite forces.
Realists: international relations need to governence
Government(backed by) Governence(backed by)
- formal authority - common goals
- concerns not only states. NGOs, IGOs,
- hierarchy
Pieces of Global Governence:
- cooperate, solve problems.
- int. Law or rules.(the hague netherlands)
- norms(or ‘soft law’) standards of behaviour. Social interaction identifiying
Behave out of the norms: out of community. Us vs them(other).
- int. Regimes(continuous and predictible)
rules, norms, decision making procedures where actor interests
converge(birlesmek) to govern a certain problem.
e.g. nuclear non-proliferation regime: (prevent-spread of weapons of mass
destruction(nuclear, chemical, bio weapons) treaties, agreements, convention)
kitle imha silahlarının önlenmesi.
- UN, IAEA: peaceful nuclear energy. NSG(nuclear supply group), CTBT-O: inter
governmental organizations.
IGOs: (neo-neo debates) NGOs:
International Organizations 1
- at least 3 states - supply experts, background, knowledge
- formal agreement - transnational
- state interest represented - provide direction of policy, background
- ad hoc arrangments
- global conferences
- sustainable development
Actors in Global Governence:
- states :
1) great powers – key actors, leadership, culture exporter(cocacola)
2) middle powers – soft power, can apply political pressure diplomacy.(not
militiral) South Africa, India, Japan, Canada, Brasil, Arjantine, Australia. 2000’de
NPT ile ilerleme sterdiler. Güney Afrika, brezilya ve Arjantin Non nuclear
weapon state treaty’i imzaladılar.
3) small powers – conform, make coalitions to influence. ıntergovernmental
organizations. E.g. NAM, NAC(new agenda coal) work together.
- IGOs
- NGOs
- individuals
- experts
- MNCs
Since 70s détente: new issues on agenda
Oil crisis: NIEO – new economic order, EC(friendly relations with middle east).
North started to care about South.
Environment, Gender
Need for nuclear energy, anti nuclear movement
Publis movements in Europe & US; civil society organisations reached to
government; NGOs were established.
‡ Prosedures to solve problems between IGOs and states.
‡ UNSG send representetive for negotiations, put pressure on, for peaceful
settlement. E.g. Cyprus.
‡ Special representetives they may key actors.
NGOs experts: Specisif issue / purpose, Technicalities, they have time to learn.
E.g. global warming; we need to use CO2 emission, unleaded gas, translate
international legislation, subsdize unleaded gas.
MNCs: corporate interest, Put pressure on politics, NGO talepleri onların
çıkarlarıyla çatısıyor. Devlete baskı yapıyorlar degismesi için. Sign not ratify.
‡ Why do we need global governance in post C.W?
New issues
Weak states political problems(ethnic, border)
Economic problems (need funds to survive economically)
* inter ethnic intra state conflict
Terrorism (international, transnational criminal Networks)
- needs funds, ideology, supporters.
e.g Asala supported by France. After the event in Orly Airport it cut its support.
- ideology transferred to apocalyptic war, romantic change in the world, system to
change. Belief system.
- discriminatory(ayrımcı)
e.g 1995 Japan/ Tokyo subway attack with chemical weapon
illicit(yasadısı) traficking(smuggling) of arms, drugs, human arms became
dangerous after CW.
International Organizations 2
End of CW = collapse of SU
Idle(bos duran) lying nuclear, chemical, bio weapons.
Unemplyoed scientist: attractive to aspirant states(Pakistan, N.Korea, Iraq,
Proliferation of WPD
- weak states (weapons of mass destruction. Nuclear, bio weapons,
ballistic missiles)
- tax border controls
Human Rights(late 1980s)
- humanitarian intervention (peace operations). State should accept, give its
consent. Devlet bu duruma karsıysa ya da onaylayacak durumda degilse(not able
to) uluslar arası organizasyon kuvvetlerini gönderebilir)
- UN mandate: affirmative vote of P-5 (realist)
- ethnic/ intra state conflict
- nation_building tasks post_conflict reconstruction. (mission military + police
forces + election observes + NGOs)
- müdehale edilecek devletle arasında bag olan ülke(dini, külrel) avantaj saglar.
- spread democracy, free market, liberal values(kantian liberalism). Democracies
do not g oto war with each other.
- widen the zone of peace
- Information & Communication Technologies: created mass media www
effect perceptions state policy.
- transnational issues. E.g environmental, pollution, epidemics, terrorism,
proliferation of WMD. Input of international organizations.
- CW destroyed it.
- internal autonomy(legitimate use of force) + extorial authority right to defend
- challange to legal system
- norms changed
- new actors(transnational civil society, ngos)
Westphalia 1914 WW1 1918-9 Versailles Treaty 1919 Wilson’s principles
Germany - Leauge of Nations; int. forum
Balance of power caused war(Wilson) - Collective Security; to
save small states
Common threat - Wilsonian idealism
x Alliance dissolve - Realism came as an reaction
(1917 US entered war, isolation end x internationalism)
- not predictable
- repetitive wars
International Organizations 3