International Organization: part of governance. Problem could not solved by state
is issue of int.org.
→ 1648 establishment of state. State sovereignty with its borders.(terrritoriality)
→ non intervention of internal affairs
→ external – self defense : had right to defense.
│1648 │1815 Vienna congress │ 1871 Unification │WW1 │1938 Munich
Agreement │ 1939 WW2
1815 Vienna Congress:
- concert of europe. Work together to prevent war, to prevent conflict between
small powers. Balance between great powers.
1871 German and Italian Unification:
- destroyed balanca of power. Tension in europe. Colony crisis.
- 14 points of Wilson: International Organizations → collective security(herhangi
bir devlet savasa kalkıstıgında digerleri bunu engelleyecek) → League of Nations
- Versailles Treaty: dimilitarization of Germany
After WW2 collective security’nin yürüyemedigi anlasıldı. LoF basarısız oldu. UN
- a track of system
1) Security Council: veto powers
2) General Assembly: small powers are advisory.
- states can not solve that problems alone. Need to cooperate.
- actors: states + non-state actors: IGOs + NGOs + individuals
Alliance: common goal/pursue/purpose/interest. Unite forces.
Realists: international relations need to governence
►Government(backed by) ►Governence(backed by)
- formal authority - common goals
- concerns not only states. NGOs, IGOs,
Pieces of Global Governence:
- cooperate, solve problems.
- int. Law or rules.(the hague netherlands)
- norms(or ‘soft law’) standards of behaviour. Social interaction → identifiying
Behave out of the norms: out of community. Us vs them(other).
- int. Regimes(continuous and predictible)
→ rules, norms, decision making procedures where actor interests
converge(birlesmek) to govern a certain problem.
e.g. nuclear non-proliferation regime: (prevent-spread of weapons of mass
destruction(nuclear, chemical, bio weapons) treaties, agreements, convention)
kitle imha silahlarının önlenmesi.
- UN, IAEA: peaceful nuclear energy. NSG(nuclear supply group), CTBT-O: inter
IGOs: (neo-neo debates) NGOs:
International Organizations 1 - at least 3 states - supply experts, background, knowledge
- formal agreement - transnational
- state interest represented - provide direction of policy, background
- ad hoc arrangments
- global conferences
- sustainable development
Actors in Global Governence:
- states :
1) great powers – key actors, leadership, culture exporter(cocacola)
2) middle powers – soft power, can apply political pressure → diplomacy.(not
militiral) South Africa, India, Japan, Canada, Brasil, Arjantine, Australia. 2000’de
NPT ile ilerleme gösterdiler. Güney Afrika, brezilya ve Arjantin Non nuclear
weapon state treaty’i imzaladılar.
3) small powers – conform, make coalitions to influence. ıntergovernmental
organizations. E.g. NAM, NAC(new agenda coal)→ work together.
♦ Since 70s détente: new issues on agenda
♦ Oil crisis: NIEO – new economic order, EC(friendly relations with middle east).
North started to care about South.
♦ Environment, Gender
♦ Need for nuclear energy, anti nuclear movement
♦ Publis movements in Europe & US; civil society organisations reached to
government; NGOs were established.
‡ Prosedures to solve problems between IGOs and states.
‡ UNSG send representetive for negotiations, put pressure on, for peaceful
settlement. E.g. Cyprus.
‡ Special representetives they may key actors.
‡ NGOs experts: Specisif issue / purpose, Technicalities, they have time to learn.
E.g. global warming; we need to use CO2 emission, unleaded gas, translate
international legislation, subsdize unleaded gas.
‡ MNCs: corporate interest, Put pressure on politics, NGO talepleri onların
çıkarlarıyla çatısıyor. Devlete baskı yapıyorlar degismesi için. Sign not ratify.
‡ Why do we need global governance in post C.W?
♦ Weak states political problems(ethnic, border)
Economic problems (need funds to survive economically)
* inter ethnic – intra state conflict
♦ Terrorism (international, transnational criminal Networks)
- needs funds, ideology, supporters.
e.g Asala supported by France. After the event in Orly Airport it cut its support.
- ideology transferred to apocalyptic war, romantic change in the world, system to
change. Belief system.
e.g 1995 Japan/ Tokyo subway attack with chemical weapon
illicit(yasadısı) traficking(smuggling) of arms, drugs, human arms became
dangerous after CW.
International Organizations 2 ♦ End of CW = collapse of SU
→ Idle(bos duran) lying nuclear, chemical, bio weapons.
→ Unemplyoed scientist: attractive to aspirant states(Pakistan, N.Korea, Iraq,
Proliferation of WPD
- weak states (weapons of mass destruction. Nuclear, bio weapons,
- tax border controls
♦ Human Rights(late 1980s)
- humanitarian intervention (peace operations). State should accept, give its
consent. Devlet bu duruma karsıysa ya da onaylayacak durumda degilse(not able
to) uluslar arası organizasyon kuvvetlerini gönderebilir)
- UN mandate: affirmative vote of P-5 (realist)
- ethnic/ intra state conflict
- nation_building tasks post_conflict reconstruction. (mission → military + police
forces + election observes + NGOs)
- müdehale edilecek devletle arasında bag olan ülke(dini, kültürel) avantaj saglar.
- spread democracy, free market, liberal values(kantian liberalism). Democracies
do not g oto war with each other.
- widen the zone of peace
- Information & Communication Technologies: created mass media → www →
effect perceptions → state policy.
- transnational issues. E.g environmental, pollution, epidemics, terrorism,
proliferation of WMD. Input of international organizations.
- CW destroyed it.
- internal autonomy(legitimate use of force) + extorial authority → right to defend
- challange to legal sy