A central component to epistemology i. ii. iii. iv. v. There are three ways of classifying how we acquire or justify knowledge. Perceptual thought i look out the window and see that it is raining, so i know it is raining. Testimony someone else tells me it is raining. Reasoning i come to the conclusion that it is raining since everyone has an umbrella: assertions play a big role in philosophical thought and questioning those assertions, epistemology theory of knowledge i. ii. Epistemology has grown in thought centered on it in the past few decades. Arguments for god have influenced epistemic thought: akrasia (weak will) why we do things we know we shouldn"t, the difference between descriptive and normative claims i. ii. iii. Going from description to what you ought to do. Hint: inferentialism, or science giving us only descriptive claims. Sun is shining descriptive; to you ought to wear sunglasses normative: a constitutive feature of value is disagreement.