Civil War

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Nutritional Science
NS 1150
David Levitsky

Christina Regan 12/19/11 AP US History Civil War War Chart 1. Causes: a. Background: i. Lincoln was elected President in November 1860 1. triggered a response from South Carolina’s Fire Eaters who rallied in Charleston on December 1 ii. South Carolina seceded in December 20, 1860 iii.February 1861 the Confederate States of America were created 1. consisted of South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas 2. President: Jefferson Davis 3. Vice President: Alexander Stephens b. Immediate: i. South Carolina demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter and cut off its supplies 1. Lincoln announced that he was sending supplies (ex. food) 2. South shot at northerners bringing supplies (April 1861) 2. Strategies of the Competing Sides for Victory: a. Union: i. Lincoln made the Confederacy choose between war and reuniting with the Union, by doing this and by waiting to declare war until after the confederacy had attacked an unarmed ship bringing necessary supplies to federal territory, he made it so that the entirety of the war’s beginning could be blamed on the Confederacy. ii. the North was very united and enthusiastic iii.Lincoln aggressively tried to hold states where few whites owned slaves iv.Used some forces that were extremely against slavery, such as the German American militia v. was cautious when dealing with Kentucky, allowed the Union to gain control vi.mixed military force with political persuasion vii. Lincoln wanted fierce fighting, was worried about the prospect of a lengthy war viii. one goal was to control the Ohio, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers. This would divide the confederacy and reduce the mobility of its armies war methods: when the government mobilized the entire resources of the society and decreed that the lives and property of enemy civilians were legitimate objects of attack x. The Union government acted ruthlessly toward Confederate sympathizers and those who opposed the draft 1. In Missouri and other border states, Union commanders levied special taxes on southern supporters 2. Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and, over the course of the war, temporarily imprisoned about 15,000 people without trial a. placed civilians who discouraged enlistments or resisted the draft under the jurisdiction of military courts, preventing acquittals by sympathetic local juries. xi.Union governments primarily used incentives to lure recruits 1. When the Militia Act of 1862 set local quotas, states, counties, and towns avoided conscription by using cash bounties of as much as $600 and signed up nearly 1 million men. 2. The Union also allowed men to avoid military service by providing a substitute or paying a $300 fee xii. Enrollment Act of 1863 initiated conscription in the North 1. German and Irish immigrants often refused to serve xiii. 1861: prominent New Yorkers established the U. S. Sanitary Commission to provide medical services and prevent the spread of epidemic diseases among the troops 1. collected food and clothing xiv. Sanitary Commission 1. Union troops had a far lower mortality rate than soldiers fighting in nineteenth-century European wars xv. North’s economy was far superior to that of the South 1. two-thirds of the nation’s population 2. two-thirds of the railroad mileage 3. almost 90 percent of the industrial output 4. advantage in the manufacture of cannon and rifles because many of its arms factories were equipped for mass production xvi. Congress enacted a neomercantilist program of government-assisted economic development 1. imposed high tariffs (averaging nearly 40 percent) on various foreign goods, thereby encouraging domestic industries 2. To boost agricultural output, they offered “free land” to farmers 3. The Homestead Act of 1862 gave settlers the title to 160 acres of public land after five years of residence 4. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase forced thousands of local banks to accept federal charters and regulations 5. Republican Congress implemented Clay’s program for a nationally financed transportation system a. 1862, Congress chartered the Union Pacific and Central Pacific companies to build a transcontinental railroad line xvii. Expenses 1. Republicans created a modern system of public finance that secured funds in three ways a. the government increased tariffs; placed high duties on alcohol and tobacco; and imposed direct taxes on business corporations, large inheritances, and the incomes of wealthy citizens i. covered 20% b. Interest-paying bonds issued by the U. S. Treasury financed another 65 percent i. National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864 forced most banks to buy those bonds c. The Union paid the remaining 15 percent by printing paper money i. Legal Tender Act of 1862 authorized $150 million in paper currency and required the public to accept them as legal tender xviii. African Americans 1. Congress passed the Confiscation Act in August 1861; it authorized the seizure of property, including slave property, used to support the rebellion 2. refused to return them to the South xix. Used Emancipation as an instrument of war xx. enlistment of African American soldiers 1. free African Americans and fugitive slaves had volunteered for the Union army but military service for blacks offended many northern whites 2. Although Union generals opposed the enlistment of African Americans, free and contraband blacks formed volunteer regiments in New England, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Kansas 3. The Emancipation Proclamation changed military policy and popular sentiment 4. In 1863, a heroic and costly attack on Fort Wagner, South Carolina, by the fifty- fourth Massachusetts Infantry convinced Union officers of the value of black soldiers 5. The Lincoln administration now recruited as many African Americans as it could 6. Black soldiers were initially paid less than white soldiers and won equal pay only by threatening to quit 7. The worst fears of the secessionists had come true: Through the agency of the Union army, blacks had risen in a great rebellion against slavery xxi. capable generals 1. March 1864, Lincoln placed General Ulysses S. Grant in charge of all Union armies 2. president determined overall strategy and Grant implemented it b. Confederacy: i. were trying to protect slavery and allow for its expansion. ii. worked to defend boundaries and maintain independence iii.Confederate constitution banned gradual emancipation or any other law impairing or denying the right of property in slaves for volunteers was successful because of its strong military tradition, supply of trained officers, and a culture that stressed duty and honor v. April 1862: Confederate Congress imposed the first legally binding draft; New laws required existing soldiers to serve for the duration of the war and demanded three years of military service from all men between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five 1. September 1862: age limit jumped to forty-five 2. Controversies: a. it exempted one white man for each twenty slaves, allowing some whites on large plantations to avoid military service b. draftees could hire substitutes i. loophole was closed in 1864 ii. price of a substitute had risen to $ 300 in gold 3. Problems: a. some southerners refused to serve b. Because the Confederate constitution vested sovereignty in the individual states, the government in Richmond could not compel military service c. some governors ignored the draft call d. despite judge’s writs of habeas corpus, which protected people from arbitrary arrest, and orders to release reluctant draftees, the confederate congress overrode the judge’s authority to free conscripted men so the government was able to keep substantial armies vi.Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee had substantial industrial capacity 1. 1861 Richmond’s armory acquired the gun-making machinery from the U.S. armory at Harpers Ferry 2. The production at the Richmond armory, the purchase of Enfield rifles from Britain, and the capture of 100,000 Union guns enabled the Confederacy to provide every infantryman with a modern rifle-musket by 1863 vii. Confederacy could mobilize enormous armies 1. slaves assisted the war effort by producing food for the army and cotton for export 2. Confederate leaders counted on King Cotton to purchase clothes, boots, blankets, and weapons from abroad a. a diplomatic weapon that would persuade Britain and France to assist the Confederacy i. British manufacturers had stockpiled cotton and exploited new sources in Egypt and India 1. Britain never recognized the Confederacy as independent, it treated the it as a belligerent power with the right to borrow money and purchase weapons viii. Confederacy initially left most matters to the state governments 1. Davis Administration: a. built and operated shipyards, armories, foundries, and textile mills b. commandeered food and scarce raw materials such as coal, iron, copper, and lead c. requisitioned slaves to work on fortifications d. and directly controlled foreign trade 2. Confederate Congress and ordinary southern citizens opposed many of Davis’s initiatives, particularly those involving taxes a. Congress refused to tax cotton exports and slaves and the urban middle classes and yeomen farm families refused to pay more than their fair share b. rising class resentment among poor whites, Angered by slave owners’ exemptions from military service and fearing that the Confederacy was doomed, ordinary southern farmers now repudiated the draft c. By 1865, at least 100,000 men had deserted from Confederate armies, prompting reluctant Confederate leaders to allow the enlistment of black soldiers and promising freedom to those who served ix.Expenses 1. Confederacy covered less than 10 percent of its expenditures through taxes 2. government paid 30 percent by borrowing a. but wealthy planters and foreign bankers grew increasingly wary of investing in Confederate bonds that might never be redeemed 3. Confederacy paid 60 percent of the war costs by printing paper money a. created inflation b. 1865, prices had risen to ninety- two times their 1861 level 4. the Confederacy could sustain the war effort only by seizing its citizens’ property and by championing white supremacy a. President Davis warned that a Union victory would destroy slavery and reduce the whites to the degraded position of the African race 3. Significant Battles with Explanation of Significance: a. April 12, 1861: i. Southerners attacked northerners bringing supplies to Fort Sumter; Fort Sumter was captured after two days of fighting ii. Significance: 1. This battle began the “full Scale” Civil War between the North and the South. 2. united the North and led to Lincoln bringing 75,000 militiamen into federal service 3. made “middle” states choose which side to join with a. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined the confederacy b. West Virginia joined with the Union i. October 1861, the yeoman dominated electorate voted to set up a separate breakaway territory c. Delaware and Maryland joined the Union b. Maryland Struggle: i. pro-confederate mob attacked Massachusetts troops traveling through Baltimore 1. first combat deaths ii. Maryland secessionists destroyed railroad bridges and telegraph lines 1. Lincoln ordered the arrest of Confederate sympathizers including legislators a. were released after Unionists had secured control of Maryland’s government c. Bull Run: i. July 1861, Lincoln ordered General Irvin McDowell and an army of 30,000 to attack General P. G. T. Beaurgard’s force of 20,000 troops at Manassas (virginia rail junction 30 miles southwest of Washington) ii. launched an assault near Manassas Creek but panic swept when the Confederates counterattacked iii.Union troops retreated to Washington iv.Significance: this battle made it clear that a victory would not be as easy as they had hoped. d. Richmond: i. McClellan and 100,000 men advanced slowly toward Richmond, allowing the Confederates to mount a counterattack ii. A Confederate army under Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson marched northward through the Shenandoah Valley in Western Virginia and threatened Washington iii.Lincoln recalled 30,000 troops to come back and protect Washington iv.Jackson then returned to Richmond to bolster the Confederate army which was commanded by General Robert E. Lee v. Lee launched an attack that lasted from June 25, 1862 to July 1 1. confederates lost 20,000 and the union lost 10,000 2. when McClellan failed to exploit the confederate losses, he was called back to Washington and Richmond remained secure e. Second Battle of Bull Run: i. General Lee joined with General Jackson in northern Virginia ii. August 1862 iii.routed Union troops iv.significance: allowed Lee and troops to continue north f. Antietam Creek: i. Lee divided his forces and sent Jackson to capture Harper’s Ferry in Western Virginia ii. a copy of his orders was found by McClellan 1. he failed to use this advantage and delayed the attack which allowed Lee’s army to occupy a strong defensive position west of Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland 2. Lee fought off McClellan’s attacks until Jackson arrived with his troops, due to casualties, McClellan let the Confederate forces retreat iii.September 17, 1862, single bloodiest day in U.S. military history iv.Significance: things are not looking very good for the Union at this point. After a couple attempts the Union forces were not able to get any victories inside the Confederate territory. However, on their first try, and despite knowing Confederate plans, the Confederate troops under Lee were able to inflict a large number of casualties on the Union troops and essentially defeat them at the second battle of Bull Run g. Fredericksburg, Virginia: i. the Union suffered heavy losses in futile attacks against well-entrenched Confederate Forces ii. led by General Ambrose Burnside who resigned and was replaced by General Joseph Hooker iii.Significance: this battle showed Lincoln the negative side of fierce fighting. As a result many soldiers were killed or wounded. It shows that fierceness without competence is ignorance h. River Battles: i. February 1862 1. gained control of the Mississippi River and the Tennessee River ii. Ulysses S. Grant used riverboats with iron plates to capture Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River 1. when he moved south to seize railroad lines, forces led by Albert Sydney Johnson and P.T.G. Beauregard attacked his troops near a church called Shiloh a. confederate forces eventually withdrew and the fighting ended on April 7 iii.Significance: this was a huge gain for the Union. They were able to gain control of vital rivers. i. New Orleans: i. April 1862 ii. David G. Farragut attacked the confederacy from the Gulf of Mexico iii.they captured New Orleans, 1,500 plantations and 50,000 slaves iv.Significance: the Union was now in control of the South’s financial center and largest city. In response to this many slaves rebelled against their owners. these battles revealed that the war would be long and costly j. Vicksburg: i. General Grant mounted a major offensive to split the Confederacy in two 1. drove south along the west bank of the Mississippi in Arkansas and then crossed the river near Vicksburg, Mississippi a. he defeated two Confederate armies and laid siege to the city b. repelled Union assaults for six weeks, and the Vicksburg garrison surrendered on July 4, 1863 c. 31,000 prisoners d. cut off Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas from the rest of the Confederacy e. prompted thousands of slaves to desert their plantations or demand wages ii. Five days later, Union forces took Port Hudson, Louisiana and seized control of the Mississippi River iii.Confederate leaders had argued over the best strategic response 1. President Davis and other politicians wanted to send an army to Tennessee to relieve the Union pressure along the Mississippi River 2. General Lee favored a new invasion of the North iv.Significance: this was a major victory for the Union. They were able to split the confederacy and prompt more slave uprisings k. Gettysburg: i. June 1863, Lee maneuvered his army north through Maryland into Pennsylvania ii. The Army of the Potomac moved along with him, positioning itself between Lee and Washington iii.July 1, the two great armies met by accident at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania iv.Lee drove the Union’s advance guard to the south of town. But Union commander George G. Meade placed his troops in hilltop positions and called up reinforcements v. Meade then had 90,000 troops to Lee’s 75,000 vi.Lee ordered assaults on Meade’s flanks but failed to turn them vii. Lee decided on a dangerous frontal assault against the center of the Union line viii. After the heaviest artillery barrage of the war, Lee sent General George E. Pickett and his 14,000 men to take Cemetery Ridge 1. When Pickett’s men charged across a mile of open terrain, they were met by deadly fire from artillery and massed riflemen; thousands were killed, wounded, or captured ix.the Confederates had suffered 28,000 casualties, one-third of the Army of Northern Virginia, while 23,000 of Meade’s soldiers were killed or wounded 1. Meade allowed the Confederate units to escape 2. Lincoln was furious x. Significance: turning point in the war, great Union victory, and transformed the political and diplomatic situation l. Battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House: i. May 1864 ii. Grant advanced toward Richmond, hoping to force Lee to fight in open fields, where the Union’s superior manpower and artillery would prevail iii.Lee remained in strong defensive positions and attacked only when he held an advantage iv.The Confederate general seized that opportunity twice, winning costly victories in early May 1864 at the bloody battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House 1. Spotsylvania, the troops fought at point-blank range v. Despite heavy losses in these battles and then at Cold Harbor, Grant drove on vi.His attacks severely eroded Lee’s forces, which suffered 31,000 casualties, but Union losses were even higher: 55,000 men vii. Significance: Lincoln finally found a general that would fight to the death, however it resulted in a large number of deaths m. Petersburg: i. In June 1864, Grant laid siege to Petersburg, an important railroad center near Richmond ii. Protracted trench warfare was devastating iii.Union and Confederate soldiers built complex networks of trenches, tunnels, and artillery emplacements stretching for 40 miles along the eastern edge of Richmond and Petersburg. iv.The stress was especially great for the outnumbered Confederate troops, who spent months in the muddy, hellish trenches without rotation to the rear v. siege vi.In April 1865, Grant finally gained control of the crucial railroad junction at Petersburg and forced Lee to abandon Richmond vii. Grant cut off Lee’s escape route to North Carolina viii. On April 9 Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, Virginia n. Atlanta, Georgia: i. Sherman’s army of 90,000 men had advanced methodically toward Atlanta, a railway hub at the heart of the Confederacy ii. June 1864, Sherman engaged General Joseph E. Johnson’s army of 60,000 in a set battle at Kennesaw Mountain iii.late July, the Union army reached the northern outskirts of Atlanta, but the next month brought little gain iv.September 2, 1864, as Atlanta fell to Sherman’s army 1. the Union general pulled his troops from the trenches, swept around the city, and destroyed its rail links to the south 2. Fearing that Sherman would encircle his army, Confederate general John B. Hood abandoned the city. v. Significance: brought new hope to the Union, strengthened Lincoln’s presidential campaign, lowered the south’s spirits, and hurt McClellan’s presidential campaign o. South Carolina: i. February 1865, Sherman invaded South Carolina to link up with Grant at Petersburg and to punish the instigators of nullification and secession ii. troops ravaged the countryside as they cut a narrow swath across the state iii.After capturing
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