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[PSYCH 1101] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (104 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1101
Professor
David Pizarro
Study Guide
Final

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Cornell
PSYCH 1101
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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9/30
Attention and Memory (Pt. 1)
A. “Basic” Cognitive Processes
a. Sensation- how the brain receives information
b. Perception- how your brain makes use of information
c. Attention
d. Memory
B. Memory: The Processing of Information
a. Reasons we have memory- so we can properly act in the future
b. Stages of memory
i. Sensory memory (like a “buffer”)- unattended information is lost
ii. Short-term memory (RAM)- unrehearsed information is lost
iii. Long-term memory (kind of permanent storage)- some information
may be lost over time
C. Without attention, memory doesn’t get going
a. Attention acts as a filter and a highlander
i. We focus on certain information (at the expense of others)
b. This way, it get information from sensory short-term memory
c. Sometimes attention requires effort
D. Attention is often involuntary
a. The “Cocktail” Party effect
i. In the midst of a loud and noisy room, you are not attending to all
conversations
ii. If your name is “spoken”, it “pops” out and captures attention
10/3
E. Sensory memory -> short term memory
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a. Information that we attend to in sensory memory passes into short-term
memory
b. Long-term memory seems to have no limit, but short-term memory has a
limited storage capacity
c. We all have different filters to prioritize different things to devote our
attention and memory too
i. We don’t attend to most things
d. Limited storage capacity: The “Magic Number” 7 (+/- 2)
i. Short-term memory is constrained
ii. But 7 +/- 2
iii. “Chunks” of inhibition
iv. DRAMAMINE
v. DRA MA MINE
vi. DRAMA MINE
F. Stages of Memory
a. Sensory memory (like a buffer)
b. Short-term memory like RAM)
c. Long-term memory (kind-of permanent storage)
d. Episodic (what happens)
e. Semantic (facts)
G. Hot to Get Something into Long-Term Memory
a. Rehearsal
b. Serial position effect
c. Mnemonic strategies
d. Rhymes
e. Acronyms
f. Method of loci (associating items with physical locations)
g. Depth of processing
h. Deep (semantic) processing leads to a better memory than shallow
i. Information stored in associative networks
10/5
A. The Malleability of Memory
a. Context-dependent memory
i. Scuba divers given 38 unrelated words (heard all words twice,
through their scuba gear)
ii. Words given to them :
1. Underwater (20 ft below surface) vs. on land
iii. 24 hours later, they were given a memory (recall) test
1. Underwater or on land
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