PSYC 168 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Cog (Band), Psychodynamics, Anxiety

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1 Apr 2019
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PSYC 168
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How do messages get from the nerve ending of one neuron to the dendrites of another?
- Neurons separated by the SYNAPSE across which a message moves
- Electrical impulses stimulates nerve ending and releases NEUROTRANSMITTERS
- NT travels across the synaptic space to RECEPTORS on the dendrites of neighboring
neurons
(only dopamine can lock onto correct receptor)
More about Neurotransmitters
- Dozens of NTs have been ID’d
- Ab activity in certain NTs can lead to specific mental disorders
- Mental disorders are sometimes related to ab chem activity in the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
- ENDOCRINE GLANDS
- HORMONES
Sources of Bio Ab’s
- Why do some people have brain structures or biochemical actives that differ from the
norm?
- Genetics
- Evolution
- Viral infections
- GENETIC INHERITANCE
- Ab’s in brain anatomy or chem are sometimes the result of genetic inheritance
- Genes control characteristics and traits a person inherits, and can make people
more prone to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, etc.
- Studies suggests inheritance plays a part in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and
other mental disorders
- EVOLUTION
- Human reactions and the responsible genes survived over time because they help
individuals thrive and adapt
- Today those genes and reactions may not always be adaptive
- Model criticized and controversial, yet it receives considerable attention
(perhaps the fear response, at one time necessary, may make someone more prone to anxiety
or PTSD. No longer adaptive or useful.)
- VIRAL INFECTIONS
- Exposure to certain viruses during childhood or before birth may contribute to ab
brain structure of the biochemical dysfunction
- Interest in viral explanations of psychological disorders has increased in the past
decade
(ex. posed...children being exposed to sicknesses and then developing schizophrenia later in
life.)
- DRUG THERAPY
- Advent of psychotropic medications in 1950s improved outlook for a number of
mental disorders
- Four major psychotropic drug groups
- Anti-anxiety drugs (anxiolytics; minor tranquilizers)
- Antidepressant drugs
- Anti-bipolar drugs (mood stabilizers) “off label” uses: mild eating disorders,
impulsive, irritable outbursts w/o diagnosis
- Antipsychotic drugs--> reduce confusion, paranoia, confusion
(review of medications takes about 12 years. 3% newly discovered chemical compounds make
it to animal testing. Only 2% of animal tested drugs reach human testing. Only 21% of human
tested drugs are approval)
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Assessing the Bio Model
- STRENGTHS
- Commands considerable respect in the field
- Constantly produces valuable new info
- Uses treatments that bring significant relief
- LIMITATIONS
- Can limit, rather than enhance, understanding of ab functioning
- Advocates treatments that reduces significant undesirable (negative) effects
(does not necessarily take into consideration other factors- environment and others. Lots of side
effects)
The Psychodynamic Model
- Normal or Ab behavior is determined largely by underlying, unconscious DYNAMIC
interacting psychological forces
- Ab symptoms are the result of conflict among these forces
How did Freud Explain Normal and Ab Functioning?
- Functioning is shaped by three UNCONSCIOUS forces that are often in conflict with one
another
- ID --> Guided by the PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
- EGO --> Guided by the REALITY PRINCIPLE and uses the EGO DEFENSE
MECHANISMS (comes in and set limits for the ID)
- SUPEREGO --> Guided by the MORALITY PRINCIPLE (conscience-- morality of
parents, may move from it and develop our own morality principle)
(Fred would say that a healthy personality is one in which these three forces are working
together effectively)
The Defense Never Rests
- Ego develops ego defense mechanisms to control unacceptable ID impulses and avoid or
reduce the anxiety they arouse
- Repression
- Denial
- Projection
- Rationalization
- Displacement
- Intellectualization
- Regression
- DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES
- At each stage, new events and pressures require adjustments in the id, ego, and
superego
- Each stage is names after the body area considered most important to the child at
that time
- As key figures in early life, parents are often seen as the cause of improper
development
How Do Other Psychodynamic Explanations Differ from Freud’s?
- Although newer theories depart from Freud’s ideas in important ways, each retains the
belief that human functioning is shaped by the dynamic (interacting) forces
-EGO THEORISTS
- Emphasize the role of the ego; consider it independent and powerful
- SELF THEORISTS
- Emphasize the unified personality
- OBJECT-RELATIONS THEORISTS
-Emphasize the human need for relationships, especially the caregiver or parents
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