ASTR 1010 Final: ASTR 1010 Final Exam Study Guide

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Astrophysical & Planetary Sciences
ASTR 1010
Nicholas Schneider

ASTR 1010 Final Exam Review Hard questions from previous exams Exam1 • Retrograde motion (the “backwards” motion of planets relative to the stars) happens because planets closer to the sun orbit faster • The Earth will always be directly overhead when viewed from the moon, but it will go through phase changes • The heliocentric theory cannot be proven with naked-eye observations • The sun sometimes rising either southeast or northeast depending on the time of year is proof of Earths tilt relative to its orbit plane • Every planet can be seen in “full” from Earth, but only planets in between the Earth and sun will have phase changes • All elements were created in stars Exam2 • The sun will set approx. 7 days later if you are looking at the sun directly overhead from the moon (29 ½ days for full rotation) • Angular momentum does not change whether at perihelion or aphelion • The sun rises at an angle in Boulder due to our location in the Northern hemisphere (angle of sunrise is dependent on location on planet) st st • March 21 -September 21 sun in northern part of sky for people near equator. September 21 -March 21 sun in southern part of sky for people near equator • “Imagine two solar systems, each with planets in circular orbits at 1 AU. Planet Bobo orbits twice as fast as planet Thina. What could explain this difference?” – Thina orbits a less massive star than Bobo • Jovian planets have more large moons than terrestrial planets because while they formed, disks surrounded them which then formed into satellites • The North Star’s position above the horizon is equivalent to the latitude of that location (if the NS is 50 degrees due north above the horizon, you are at latitude 50 degrees N) • Sky’s look the same from places of the same latitude but different longitude (i.e. 38N, 122W looks the same as 38N, 77W) Exam3 • The spectrum of the “mystery gas” from lab was from a gas of atoms and ions, because it looked like “spikes” • The wire in a lightbulb has similar surface temperature to the sun • Any question that involves mass and size, plug intogF =(G*m1*m2)/r^2 • UV light dissociates (breaks apart) ozone molecules • Our eyes cannot detect thermal emission • Colder temperatures lead to decreases in formation of carbonate rocks, raising the temperature Stuff prior to exam3 Jovian Planets • Much larger and more massive than terrestrial planets • Mainly H, He, Hydrogen Compounds • No solid surfaces • Rotate more quickly (causes them to be “squished”) • Many moons • Have ring systems • Formed beyond the frost line  large, icy planetesimals massive enough to capture nebular gas  causes a “mini solar nebula” due to rotation  from this nebula is where satellites form  mini solar nebula also capture many small moons • • Jupiter is about as big as JP’s can get. H and He are compressible, so more mass  compression  higher density  smaller object  stronger gravity  more compression! • Uranus and Neptune accreted their cores more slowly than Jupiter and Saturn, causing them to get less nebular gas, causing them to be enriched by hydrogen compounds JP Systems • Many many moons! • Moons have different heat sources than TPs (composition matters) • Jupiter moons: Io and Europa, Saturn moons: Enceladus and Titan, Neptune’s moon: Triton • Tides cause rotation rates to go down  moon eventually falls into synchronous rotation (synchronizing rotation with period of revolution around a larger body)  same face to always face larger body (aka synchronous lock) (like the Moon does to Earth) • Objects in orbital resonance  orbit slowly becomes elliptical  elliptical orbit causes tides (strong tides at perihelion, weak tides at aphelion)  tides cause constant shifting interior  heats moon (tidal heating) • Rules for tidal heating: o Orbit must be elliptical o Moons closer to the planet undergo more tidal heating o More massive planets cause more tidal heating Io • Molten interior • High geological activity • No impact craters • Some atmosphere, with strong loss processes • Orbital resonance  active volcanoes  sulfur dioxide released into atmosphere  some escapes into space from Io’s low
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