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EBIO 1220 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Heterotroph, Endosperm, Double Fertilization


Department
Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Course Code
EBIO 1220
Professor
Melbourne
Study Guide
Midterm

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Marlee Lederer
EBIO 1220 Exam 3
1. Fungi produce ________ spores.
Haploid
2. Karyogamy produces a ________.
Diploid zygote
3. Karyogamy is:
The fusion of nuclei
4. Plasmogamy is:
Fusion of hyphae
5. Which stage of the fungal life cycle contains two haploid nuclei?
The heterokaryotic stage
6. The heterokaryotic stage is produced by:
Plasmogamy
7. During reproduction, ________ cells undergo asexual reproduction while ________ cells
undergo sexual reproduction.
Haploid; diploid
8. Which term describes the fusion of cytoplasm from two different individuals?
Plasmogamy
9. True or false? In most fungi, fertilization is a two-step process consisting of the fusion of cells
and then the fusion of nuclei in the fused cells.
True
10. Where does meiosis occur in a mushroom?
Basidia
11. Basidia are:
Specialized cells in the gills of a mushroom in which haploid nuclei fuse in preparation
for meiosis.
12. Which structure allows the growing mushroom to nourish itself?
Mycelium
13. Mycelium:
Mass of filaments with a high SA:V ratio, which allows for efficient nutrient absorption.
14. Which event occurs once a spore germinates?
Hyphae are produced by mitosis.
15. True or false? Most cells in a mushroom contain haploid nuclei.
True; a mushroom consists mainly of hyphae that are heterokaryotic, which means they
have two distinct haploid nuclei per cell. These nuclei may fuse in specialized cells called
basidia and become diploid in preparation for meiosis and spore production.
16. You are presented with several single-celled organisms, including one thought to belong to the
kingdom Fungi. What unique feature helps you identify the fungus?
Presence of chitin
17. Chitinous cell walls are a distinguishing trait of ________.
Fungal cells
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18. When does meiosis occur in fungi?
Following the fusion of nuclei
19. In animals, an individual consisting of diploid cells is usually the life stage that signals to attract a
mate and discriminates whether the potential mate is compatible. What life stages typically
accomplish these functions in fungi?
Haploid hyphae
20. What feature of the chytrids supports the hypothesis that they represent the most primitive
fungi (think of its key characteristic)?
Flagellated spores
21. Fungi produce spores at which phase of their life-cycles?
Both asexual and sexual phase
22. What is true about Chytrids?
They are commonly found in aquatic habitats.
Mostly decomposers and parasites.
Molecular evidence supports the hypothesis that chytrids diverged early in fungal
evolution.
Chytrids are unique among fungi in having flagellated spores, called zoospores.
23. What is true about multicellularity?
Most transitions to multicellularity occurred nearly a billion years ago.
24. Why is it so difficult to study the evolution of multicellularity?
It happened so long ago that many additional changes have occurred since then in these
organisms.
25. What does the multicellular Volvox and unicellular Chlamydomonas suggest about the evolution
of multicellularity?
Gene duplication events could be important for the evolution of multicellularity because
the new genes are free to change.
26. Multicellularity evolved ________ in plants and involved related cells staying together.
Once
27. True or false? Volvox and other examples of multicellular organisms show that while a division
of labor between cells may arise, distinct tissue types do not necessarily arise as a result of
multicellularity.
True
28. True or false? Compared to Chlamydomonas, Volvox has more genes that encode cell wall
proteins, and many of the extra genes are quite different from the ones Chlamydomonas has.
True
29. What is the main difference in the genes found in Volvox and Chlamydomonas?
The genes associated with cell adhesion, which may have been essential for
multicellularity in the Volvox.
30. Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants?
Chloroplasts
31. What are some essential adaptations to dealing with being on dry land?
Early evolutionary relationships with mycorrhizae
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A vascular system
Stomata to reduce water loss
32. Lignan is:
Important in plant support against gravity.
33. Angiosperms are most closely related to ________.
Gymnosperms
34. Which of these was the dominant plant group at the time that dinosaurs were the dominant
animals (Mesozoic)?
Gymnosperms
35. Charophyceans are:
The green algae most closely related to plants.
36. ________ are an example of seedless vascular plants.
Ferns
37. The living plants that are most similar to the first plant to bear specialized structures (called
gametangia) that house the gametes are the ________.
Bryophytes
38. In moss, ________ produce sperm.
Antheridia, found on the tops of male gametophytes.
39. The sperm produced by mosses require ________ to reach archegonium.
Moisturel moss sperm swim to archegonia.
40. In the moss life cycle ________ cells within a sporangium undergo ________ to produce
________ spores
Diploid; meiosis; haploid
41. In mosses, gametes are produced by ________; in ferns, gametes are produced by ________.
Mitosis; mitosis
42. A ________ sporophyte develops from a zygote that was produced when a ________ sperm
fertilized a ________ egg.
Diploid; haploid; haploid
43. Where do antheridia develop?
On the underside of the gametophyte.
44. The conspicuous (obvious) part of a fern plant is a ________.
Diploid sporophyte
45. In mosses, spores are produced by ________; in ferns, spores are produced by ________.
Meiosis; meiosis
46. Which of the following was NOT a challenge for survival of the first land plants?
Animal predation (no animals/predators)
47. Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of
generations. No charophytes exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind that recent
evidence from molecular systematics, the correct interpretation of these observations is that:
Plants evolved alternation of generations independently of green algae
48. All of the following are common to both charophytes and land plants EXCEPT:
A. Stomata
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